FED-2 - Soviet rangefinder camera with interchangeable lenses, produced from 1955 to 1970 of the last century Kharkiv Labor Commune named after Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Ukraine), by that time turned into a large factory for the production of cameras and optical instruments.
The main difference from the first FED model (Leica II) is the combination of the rangefinder window and the viewfinder. And it was actually a breakthrough in usability. In addition, a diopter adjustment system has been added to the viewfinder combined with the rangefinder. What was not, and subsequently, will never be on Zenit SLR cameras. The body of the camera still resembled a crushed tube, trimmed with leatherette, and the optics were installed on an outdated M39 connection (Leica Screw Mount). Cameras "FED" of the second version were produced with a removable back wall, in contrast to the early "Zorkih" made by KMZ.
Until 1959, the numbering of the cameras was sequential, and since 1959 it was coded. The numbers are located on the back of the top cover. For the period from 1955 to 1970. produced about 1 663 000 copies. Zarya cameras based on FED-2 - 141. Compared to the production of the same Zenits, of course, this is very small.
The camera was produced for a rather long time, and by the time the last FED-2 came off the assembly line, it could meet with the following lenses:
- Industar-10 1: 2.8 F = 50mm P (I-10, I-22, Industar-22; FED 3,5 / 50 is the main name)
- Industar-26M 1: 2.8 F = 50mm P (I-26M)
- I-26M (Industar-26M) 2.8/50
- Industar-61 1: 2.8 53mm L / D (I-61, I-61 LD)
FED-2 meets different body finishes:
- With red trim
- With blue trim
- With green trim
- With black finish
And also marked on the occasion of events (FED-2 "Festival", for example) and specialized versions of cameras. There are the following changes in the FED-2 ergonomics:
- Early releases were equipped with a disc-cocked shutter
- Late issues acquired a trigger platoon
- Some models did not have sync contact and were manually modified
- Synchronous contact in different years was present on the top cover and on the case
- The shutters had a setting of shutter speeds from 1/25 to 1/500, or 1/30 and 1/500.
- The cocking head is rotating, the shutter speed must be switched on the cocked (!) Shutter
- With and without self-timer
- With the I-61 L/D lens, the model had the name FED-2L in the instructions.
According to the catalog "1200 cameras of the USSR" FED-2 has the following modifications:
- Group of models of the "FED" family without exposure meter
- FED-2 cameras of the first model group
- FED-2 cameras of the third model group
- FED-2 model group IV
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 1 Model line I Release 1
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 1 Model line I Issue 2 (special)
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 1 Model line I Release B
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 1 Model line II Issue 4
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 1 Model line II Issue 5
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 2 Model line II Issue 6
- FED-2 Model group IV Modification 2 Model line II Issue 7
- FED-2 cameras of the fifth model group
- FED-2 model group VI
- Distinctive features of "FED-2" model chambers releases
Refers to a group of rangefinder film cameras without an exposure meter. In 1969-1970, a small number of FED-2 cameras of the fourth issue were produced in the case of the third “trigger” model, shutter speeds from 1/500 to 1/30 s and “B”.
FED-2 in operation
The 1955 camera, although it had an outdated lens mount, nevertheless made it possible to take good photos. It had a combined rangefinder with a viewfinder, but at the same time, focusing less than one meter was not available for the lenses of these rangefinder cameras. There was an extensive park of optics, which made it possible to install various lenses with a standardized focal distance without adjusting the rangefinder, and the standard lenses of the Industar series initially had good image quality, unlike most of what is now equipped with cameras with interchangeable lenses in the kit.
The main inconvenience when working with a rangefinder camera was the inability to see the image from the lens. The rangefinder and viewfinder were a separate system that only gave an informational view of focusing. There was no way to visually determine the depth of field, so we used the depth-of-field scale from the lenses.
Case, build quality FED-2
Impeccable workmanship of exterior parts and finishes. No backlash, no creaks. The gaps between the panels are minimal, the back wall can be folded back, but closed with two locks. The chamber bodies had upper and lower parts made of electrochemically painted brass.
All controls are concentrated on the top cover. Here is a dial for setting the shutter speeds, a drive for the shutter cocking device and film advance, as well as a reminder of the film sensitivity. The release button with activation of the film winding mode back to the take-up spool is located between the shoe and the shutter cocking device, and the accessory shoe itself, which could mainly accommodate flashes or various devices such as a revolving or single viewfinder, is located at the highest point of the top cover.
Manual control of aperture, determination of the depth of field on a scale from the lens. There was no mechanization or aperture preset. All manipulations were done manually.
Sighting through the viewfinder
The viewfinder combined with the rangefinder is a breakthrough in convenience after the first FED model. It was possible to crop and focus at the same time. The main thing is that the camera is in good working order, and the plane of the image from the lens coincides with the displayed image in the viewfinder and is correctly projected onto the film.
Exposure control was manual; an external exposure meter was used. To set the shutter speed, it was necessary to cock the shutter, and only then turn the shutter speed dial. The shutter speeds available for installation are B, 1/25-X, 1/50, 1/100, 1/200, 1/500. Later, the excerpts were changed, and are given in accordance with GOST USSR - B, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500.
The classic flash sync speed is available at 1/30 second. The FED-2 did not have a central sync contact.
Light meter and exposure metering in FED-2
There is no light meter. Measurement and selection of parameters was carried out on a whim, experience, or using an external exposure meter.
Convenience of work
Convenience of work, as with a film camera. There is nothing superfluous in the device, but some system limitations contribute to efficiency:
- Depth of field is not determined
- It is impossible to shoot the dynamics, since it is not always possible to observe the moving part of the rangefinder image correctly
- No way to focus closer than 1 meter by default
- There is no way to simply change the focal length by attaching a longer or shorter lens and shoot without looking through the secondary viewfinder
- No framing frames directly in the viewfinder for lenses other than 50mm focal length
FED-2 was praised for its large rangefinder base - 67mm, which few rangefinder cameras in the USSR possessed.
FED-2 belongs to the class of cameras with the quietest shutters. Just "clack" and that's it. Soft release button, there is no perceptible vibration, there is no mirror that would vibrate and create additional noise.
The reliability of the mechanics is slightly lower than that of cameras with a fixed cocking head. If only because there is an opportunity to break the shutter or the cocking mechanism by wrong actions. Otherwise, the troubles are like those of cameras with shutters. The shutters were used typical for the Zorkiy, Zenit, FED models of various versions, with accompanying problems in the form of:
- Jammed curtains
- Weakening of springs and incorrect operation of shutter speeds
- Broken curtains
- Burnout of the shutters due to aging of rubber or burnout in the sun, if the user has hammered to cover the lens with a cap
- The cocking mechanism really breaks down if you switch the shutter speed on the uncocked shutter
Working with film
The film is loaded under the hinged cover, it is necessary to push in and fix the tail of the film in the take-up spool. Film rewinding by the head, the rewinding head is lifted from the camera body. Combined with the viewfinder diopter adjustment knob. The frame counter is manual, there is no reset. The film is loaded under the rear removable cover.
Loading film FED-2
Loading the film is very simple, it is done under the rear opening cover, as on the FED-5V. We push the tail of the fresh film into the slot of the receiver coil, and make a control cocking of the shutter.
Get the film out of FED-2
It is not difficult to get the film out of FED-2. Turn the skirt at the base of the release button counterclockwise, then lift the rewind knob to the left and wind the film clockwise.
What kind of film is needed for a FED camera?
Any 135 type (35mm) film in standard spools is suitable for FED cameras. You can use both black and white and color, you can wind the film yourself. A budget hobbyist color film from Fujifilm or Kodak, black and white Tasma, works well. ISO 400 films are suitable for low light conditions, while ISO 200 films are better for shooting outdoors in clear or slightly cloudy weather.
Photo gallery of cameras FED-2
An example of a photo from the FED-2 camera
Author - Matvey stavitsky
|Camera type||35mm horizontal travel focal-plane shutter camera|
|Print size||24 x 36 mm|
|Lens included||Industar-10, Industar-26, Industar-61|
|Mount lens||Unified threaded connection (M39 × 1 / 28,8)|
|Metering||External exposure meter sold separately|
|Shutter||Biaxial focal gate with fabric curtains.
Main shutter speed dial contains B, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, and 1/500 sec.
|Viewfinder||Viewfinder combined with a rangefinder, diopter adjustment|
|FP, on later modifications|
|Loading Film||Removable back panel, film cassette is inserted inside.|
|Frame counter||Manual entry from 0 to 36 on the top cover of the camera, aligned with the shutter cocking|
|Film rewind||Rewind knob on the top cover, reminder of the photosensitivity of the film installed in the camera|
|The weight||November 900, XNUMX|
A classic rangefinder camera for those who like rangefinder cameras. According to information from Collectiblend, cameras of this type, depending on the modification, can cost up to $ 250. In our market, cameras of free movement can be found very cheaply.
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