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A group of models of the FED family without an exposure meter. FED first

In 1934, and in the workshops of the children's labor commune named after F.E.Dzerzhinsky (hence the name "FED"), serial production of small-format mechanical cameras under the unifying name "FED" began in Kharkov. The prototype was the Leica model II camera of the German company E. Leitz. All models of this family can be divided into 2 large groups. The first consists of models without an exposure meter, and the second is a model with an exposure meter. The main unifying feature of the models of this group is the absence of a built-in exposure meter. All models are purely mechanical, that is, they allow independent setting of both shutter speeds and aperture. Models differ in individual constructive, design solutions and varieties of the main lens.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

FED-Leica

(The name is marked on the lens cap)

FED-Leica

1932 1933 Produced in 3 copies in 1932; 30 copies in 1933

A copy of the German Leiсa camera model I. A small-format device of a rigid construction, designed for the use of perforated 35-mm film. The aspect ratio is 24 × 36 mm, the number of frames is 36. The body of the device is aluminum, flat, covered with black leather. The bottom cover is made of a removable film for charging the camera. The upper bridge and the lower cover are black lacquered. Curtain-slotted gate fulfills 7 fixed exposures from 1/20 to 1/500 s and long "Z". Focusing is carried out using an attached rangefinder or but a distance scale. Framing with the optical viewfinder. Non-replaceable lens Elmar 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed leica

Small format rangefinder cameras of this model have a rigid body, which is made of a flattened aluminum tube. The frame format is 24 × 36 mm. Cloth curtain-slit gate with a horizontal shutter travels 8 fixed shutter speeds from 1/20 to 1/500 s and "Z" (freehand). Platoon shutter and transportation of the film is interlocked and carried out by rotating a special head. Focusing is carried out using an optical rangefinder located with the viewfinder under one cover. All cameras are equipped with FED lenses.

FED-1

(The number 1 is added conditionally)

The cameras were numbered consecutively. Until 1955, numbers were engraved on the upper panel of the rangefinder cover, and from 1955 on the rear wall of the upper bridge. In total, for the period from 1934 to 1955. at the FED plant, according to various sources, from 655 to 000 cameras were produced.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

Historical information

The production of FED-1 cameras can be divided into 3 stages. At the first, pre-war stage, from 1934 to June 194, in Kharkov, according to the plant, about 1 160 cameras were produced. At the same time, it is known that one of the last pre-war cells has a nom. 650 and its issue is dated June 161716, 15 (the original of the graduation certificate has been preserved). The difference of 1941 is easy to explain. This number of rangefinder covers was rejected due to engraving errors and sent to the warehouse. The numbers of the defective covers were not duplicated, so a large number of numbers were not used.

At the second stage, from February to October 1942 and from February to June 1946, when the plant was in evacuation in Berdsk, about 19 cameras were produced. The amount is approximate, since the volume of the unofficial assembly is unknown. Here in Berdsk, when assembling the cameras, rangefinder covers were also used, rejected and taken out of Kharkov. At the third stage (from 000 to 1948), after the plant returned to Kharkov, about 1955 cameras were manufactured.

Cameras of the first model group

Cameras of this model group differ only in the cover cover and body wrap. Due to interruptions in the supply of raw materials, the camera bodies were covered with either leather, or colored glossy plastic, or artificial rubber "under shagreen leather". For this reason, the upper bridge, rangefinder cover and lower case cover were either black lacquered, nickel-plated, or chrome-plated. There are six known camera releases of this model group.

FED-1 Model Group I Issue 1

January 1933 10 prototypes were produced. Peculiarities:

  • there is no clamp for fixing devices
  • rounded shape of the right end of the rangefinder cover
  • volumetric viewfinder frame has the shape of an incomplete rectangle
  • there is no thread on the sleeve around the release button for installing the collar (appeared later)
  • body covered in black leather
  • lens, upper bridge, covers and control heads are plated with unpolished nickel
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm with a large sector of the distance scale (full-turn).

fed 1 1 1

FED-1 Model Group I Issue 2

1934 Number of Copies not established. Peculiarities:

  • there is no thread on the sleeve around the release button for installing the collar (appeared later):
  • the body is covered with glossy black plastic;
  • corps lens, controls and all covers are plated with unpolished nickel;
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm with a large sector of the distance scale.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

FED-1 Model Group I Issue 3

1934 Numbers from 233 to 425 are known. Features:

  • the body is covered with glossy black plastic
  • case covers are black lacquered
  • casing lens and controls are nickel plated
  • lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm with a large sector of the distance scale.

fed 1 1 3

FED-1 Model Group I Issue 4

1934 The number of copies is not established, but no. 489 is known. Features:

  • the body is covered with glossy black plastic;
  • all covers are chrome-plated ("zinc-like");
  • casing lens and controls are nickel plated;
  • lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm with a large sector of the distance scale.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

FED-1 Model Group I Issue 5

1934 The number of copies has not been established. Peculiarities:

  • the body is covered with glossy brick-colored plastic;
  • all covers are chrome-plated (zinc-like);
  • Nickel plated lens cover and controls
  • main lens "FED" ("Industar-10") 3,5 / 50 mm with increased focusing scale.

fed 1 1 5

FED-1 Model Group I Issue 6

1934-1935 Rooms No. 1511 and No. 4643. Features:

  • the body is covered with artificial rubber ("shagreen leather");
  • all covers are chrome-plated "zinc-like";
  • the main lens of the "FED" type 3.5 / 50 mm with an enlarged sector of the distance scale.

fed 1 1 6

Cameras of the second model group

In the middle of 1935, when A.S. Makarenko, who was in charge of the labor commune, was appointed assistant to the head of the department of labor colonies of the NKVD-Ukrainian SSR. engraving appeared on the top panel of the rangefinder cover: "NKVD-Ukrainian SSR". After a radical reconstruction of the equipment in the spring of 1935, the quality of the production of FED cameras improved significantly. All external parts of cameras and lenses were covered only with chrome, and the bodies, up to the end of the production of the FED model, were finished with embossed artificial rubber with a slight change in the embossing pattern. During production from 1935 to 1939, the cameras of this model group underwent minor design changes. Changed the shape of the end of the rangefinder cover and the viewfinder frame, the diameter of the shutter speed switching head and the radius of the outer end bracket of the lower cover. Finally, a clamp ("slide") appeared for attaching devices to the rangefinder cover. The font and the one hundred size in the writing of information on the top panel of the rangefinder cover have changed, and much more.

In addition, the main FED 3.5 / 50 mm lens has been improved. Number of focusing thread starts lens increased to 5, which made it possible to compress the stop of the distance scale (half-turn). The total number of cameras in this model group is about 87 copies. At the same time, the minimum number 500 and the maximum number 4650 are known.

fed mod 3

FED-1 Model group II Modification 1 Model line I Release 1

1935 About 34 copies were produced. The numbers are known min 00 and max 4650. Features:

  • there is no clamp for fixing the device
  • rounded shape of the right end of the rangefinder cover
  • the shape of the outer frame of the framing window;
  • incomplete rectangle;
  • on the rear wall of the housing there is an adjustment hole closed with a round stopper;
  • the main lens of the "FED" type 3.5 / 50 mm with a shortened focusing scale.

fed 1 2 1 1 1

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 2

1935 About 600 copies were produced. Rooms: min 8172 and max 8550 are known. Features:

  • there is a clamp for fixing devices:
  • "Leech" form of the outer frame of the framing window;
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 2

 

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 3

1935 About 2 copies were produced. Rooms: min 000 and max 8602 are known. Features:

  • a volumetric framing frame has the shape of a rectangle with a step to the top panel of the rangefinder cover;
  • there is no adjustment hole on the rear wall of the camera body, since the focal length of the lenses has been unified and there is no need for individual adjustment with each camera;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm

fed 1 2 2 1 3

 

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 4

1935-1936 About 4 copies were produced. Rooms: min 750 and max 10875 are known. Features:

  • there is no step to the top panel of the lid at the volumetric frame of the framing window;
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 4

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 5

1936 About 4 copies were produced. Rooms: min 150 and max 15872 are known. Features:

  • there is no technological annular recess on the rangefinder cover under the exposure head;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 5

 

 

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 6

1936 About 4 copies were produced. Rooms: min 700 and max 19699 are known. Features:

  • reduced the diameter of the exposure head:
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 6

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 7

1936-1937 About 10300 copies were produced. Numbers: min No. 24548 and max No. 34478 are known. Features:

  • the font of the name of the model group has become larger
  • main lens "FED" ("Industar-10") 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 7

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 8

1937 About 14 copies were produced. Rooms: min 300 and max 35477 are known. Features:

  • knurling on platoon heads shutter and rewind the film became larger;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 8

 

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line I Release 9

1937-1938 Produced about 5700 copies. Rooms: min No. 50370 and max 55370 are known. Features:

  • there is no stopper on the clamp for accessories;
  • there is no fastening screw of the lower bridge to the front wall of the case;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 1 9

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line II Issue 10

1938 Produced, about 21 copies, numbers: min 000 and max 56530 known. Features:

  • the shape of the right end of the rangefinder cover is angular;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

 

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line II Issue 11

1939 About 3700 copies were produced. Rooms: min 81857 and max 85622 are known. Features:

  • increased radius of the bottom cover mounting bracket;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 2 11

FED-1 Model group II Modification 2 Model line II Issue 12

1939 About 8700 copies produced. Numbers: min No. 86060 and max No. 93536 are known. Features:

  • the central fixing screw of the upper bridge to the body is offset to the right of lens;
  • missing 3 fixing screws under the rewind head;
  • main lens "FED" ("Industar-10") 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 2 2 2 12

Cameras of the third model group

On December 30, 1938, the children's labor commune was transformed into the Kharkov Industrial Combine of the NKVD-USSR named after I. F. 3. Dzerzhinsky, and since 1939 the cameras "FED" were produced under this name. This is how the third model group was formed. The production of cameras of this model group can be divided into 2 stages. From 1939 to June 1941, the assembly of the chambers was carried out at the FED plant in Kharkov, and from February to October 1942 it continued in Berdsk, where the plant was evacuated during the war. It is known that cameras were made in Kharkov approximately from No. 95 ... to No. 165 ... in the amount of about 68 copies, and in Berdsk they were assembled from No. 500 ... but No. 165 ... in the amount of about 173 copies.

fed mod 4

 

FED-1 Model group III Kharkov edition

1939 first half of 1941. About 69000 copies were produced. Numbers: Min No. 95658 and Shah No. 164716, issued June 15, 1941, are known. Features:

  • the rangefinder cover is engraved with the third model group: “FED. NKVD-SSSR Kharkiv Combine named after F. E. Dzerzhinsky ";
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

FED-1 Model group III Berdsky release

February-October 1942 About 8000 copies were produced. Numbers: min 166617 and max 172385 are known. Features:

  • on the cover of the rangefinder there is an engraving of the third model group: “FED, NKVD USSR Kharkov Combine mm. F. E. Dzerzhinsky "
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 3 b

Cameras of the fourth model group

fed mod 5

FED-1 Model Group IV

1946-1947 Produced, about 11 copies. Peculiarities:

  • the name of the fourth prayer group is engraved on the cover of the range finder: “FED, plant named after F. E. Dzerzhinsky, Kharkov "
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 4

 

Cameras of the fifth model group

In 1948, at the FED plant. returned by this time from evacuation, produced about 1800 chambers with an engraving "FED, NKAP-USSR, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, plant them. F. E. Dzerzhinsky ". Obviously, it was a memorable party, since in 1948 the people's commissariats no longer existed, and the order was awarded to the plant in September 1945, when it was under the jurisdiction of the NKAP. Perhaps this batch was released for the 15th anniversary of the beginning of production of FED cameras. The minimum number 200161 and the maximum number 201702 are known.

fed mod 6

 

FED-1 Model group V

1948 1800 copies produced. Numbers: min 200001, max 201800. Features:

  • the name is engraved on the top panel
  • the fifth model group: "FED, HKAP USSR, Order of the Red Banner of Labor, plant named after F. E. Dzerzhinsky "
  • a kind of horizontal-longitudinal embossing of the hull skin
  • the main lens of the "FED" type ("Industar-10") 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 5

Cameras of the sixth model group

The penultimate model group of FED-1 cameras. A new font of the plant logo has appeared. Known 2 modifications characterized by the ability to install a release cable. Cameras of this model group were produced in 1949-1954. During this period, about 196 copies were produced.

Historical information

In the post-war period, the discrepancy between the number of cameras produced and their numbering continued, since the number of defective shields did not decrease (their numbers were not duplicated).

fed mod 7

 

FED-1 Model group VI Modification 1 Issue 1

1949-1951 About 70 copies were produced. Peculiarities:

  • on the cover of the rangefinder there is an engraving of the name of the sixth model group: “FED, plant named after F. E. Dzerzhinsky ";
  • there is no additional stiffening rib on the lower case cover;
  • the main lens of the "FED" type ("Industar-10") 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 4 1 1

FED-1 Model group VI Modification 2 Issue 2

1952 1954 Produced 120 copies. Peculiarities:

  • the modified design of the release button made it possible to use the release cable
  • with the introduction of the new GOST, the number of exposures was reduced to 6: 1/25, 1/50, 1/100, 1/250, 1/500 s and "B";
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm. Since 1950 he has been enlightened.

fed 1 4 2 2

FED-1 Model group VI Modification 2 Issue 3 (special)

1954 Number of copies not established. The issue is dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. Peculiarities:

  • the camera number has been moved from the top panel of the rangefinder cover to the rear panel, since the number was engraved with: "1654-1954 Havens at once with Moscow";
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 4 2 3 s

Cameras of the seventh model group

The latest model of the FED-1 camera group. An additional inscription was removed from the top panel of the rangefinder cover: “Plant named after F. E. Dzerzhinsky ". In 1955, the factory died was engraved on the rear wall of the upper bridge. For the period from 1954 to 1955. about 278 cameras were produced. Since 000, all production areas of the plant have been allocated for the production of cameras of the new model "FED-1955".

fed mod 8

FED-1 Model Group VII Issue 1

1954 About 130 copies produced. Peculiarities:

  • the name of the seventh model group is engraved on the cover of the rangefinder: "FED"
  • main lens "FED" 3.5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 7 1

FED-1 Model group VII Issue 2 (special)

1954 Limited production. The issue is dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. Peculiarities:

  • the corresponding inscription is made on the upper panel of the rangefinder cover: "1654-1954 Navi at once from Moscow";
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

 

FED-1 Model Group VII Issue 3

1955 About 148 copies produced. Peculiarities:

  • number moved to the rear wall of the upper bridge;
  • body cover in dark brown color;
  • main lens "FED" 3,5 / 50 mm.

fed 1 7 3

Distinctive features of "FED-1" model chambers releases

FED cameras (first) - 1200 cameras of the USSR

fed 1 mod 3 fed 1 mod 4 fed 1 mod 5 fed 1 mod 6 fed 1 mod 7 fed 1 mod 8

 

FED-1 (assembly in Berdsk)

1942 The number of copies has not been established. Cameras with 2, 3, 4-digit numbers are rare. One of the versions explains this by the lack of parts from which the cameras were assembled during the evacuation. Rangefinder covers were made back in Kharkov, but were rejected due to errors in engraving the number, and in Berdsk they went to assembly.

fed 1b

 

FED-1 (Fake "Leica»II)

In 1938-1939. at the Kharkov Combine named after F.E.Dzerzhinsky produced fake Leica cameras mod. II. For what purpose? There is no answer to this question yet. An exact copy of the German name is applied to the upper panel of the rangefinder cover. The numbering was carried out at random. It was not possible to establish the exact number of fakes, but it is known that they were produced in small batches.

fed 1 lake

 

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  • 1200 cameras of the USSR. CHAPTER I. Kharkov plant "FED". A group of models of the FED family without an exposure meter.
  • PHOTO MUSEUM "PHOTO WORLD"
  • Victor Suglob, Sergey Kochergin, Grigory Shaternik
  • Released only 750 copies of the classifier

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