PJSC Krasnogorsk Plant named after S. A. Zverev, earlier - Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant (KMZ) - a large optical enterprise located in the city of Krasnogorsk, Moscow Region. The trademark of KMZ products since 1946 is the image of the Dove prism with an arrow.

In accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of November 21.11.2008, 873 No. 11.01.2009 and the order of the State Corporation "Russian Technologies" dated January 2, XNUMX No. XNUMX, it was included in the Optical Systems and Technologies holding (now the Shvabe holding).

It specializes in the production of optical and optoelectronic devices - aerospace photographic equipment and ground observation systems, sighting complexes and fire control systems, medical equipment, cameras, lenses, observation devices. Together with LOMO and the Arsenal plant, KMZ was one of the three largest manufacturers of photographic equipment in the USSR: over the entire period of its activity, the plant produced a total of more than 21 million cameras.

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History

The plant was founded in 1942 by order No. 63 of the USSR People's Commissar of Armament dated February 1, 1942 on the vacated areas of Lenin Plant No. 69 (formerly Pavshinsky Precision Mechanics Plant No. 19), evacuated in October 1941 to the city of Novosibirsk. The plant was assigned number 393 in the system of the People's Commissariat of Armaments (NKV) of the USSR.

During the Great Patriotic War, the activities of the enterprise were fully focused on the needs of defense. In March 1942, the plant began production of the first optical-mechanical devices, and in July of the same year the following are in production: large stereo tubes "BST", tank commander panoramas "PTK-5", periscopic artillery compass "PAB", mortar sights "MPB-80 "And" MP-5K ". A slit aerial camera "ASCHAFA-2" designed by V. A. Semyonov is put into production. In 1944, the plant created special design bureaus for aerial cameras (SPKB-1) and artillery optical devices (SPKB-2) with the simultaneous organization of experimental workshops. In total, in the period 1942-1945, the plant produced more than 400 thousand various devices for the needs of the Red Army.

After the end of the war of reparations, the Krasnogorsk plant received a large amount of documentation and equipment from German optical enterprises. Since 1946, about 300 German specialists have been sent to the factories of the industry from Germany, the main part, over a third, worked at KMZ for about five years. In the post-war years, the enterprise began production of civilian products, and already in 1946 the plant began production of a trophy copy of the Zeiss Ikonta camera, named “Moscow-1”, projection devices for the Lenin, preparations began for the release of the FED camera (which later received its own name "Sharp").

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  • In 1948, the Central Design Bureau (CDB) was created, which included SPKB-1 and SPKB-2, and a number of new directions for the design of tank sights, infrared and other devices were organized. In 1949, the production of the EM-3 electron microscope, developed at GOI under the leadership of A.A. Lebedev, began. In 1952, a single-lens reflex camera "Zenith" was launched into mass production, which laid the foundation for a whole line, one of the models of which became the most massive "SLR" in the world and was released with a total circulation of more than 8 million copies.
  • In 1955, a radio engineering production was organized at the plant to produce equipment for controlling air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles.
  • In 1958, the plant took part in the World Exhibition in Brussels (Expo-58), where samples of factory products were awarded gold medals and diplomas.
  • In 1959, the AFA-E1 aerial camera in Krasnogorsk as part of the Yenisei photo and television complex developed and manufactured by the Leningrad NII-380 (NII TV, now: NIIT), installed on the Luna-3 automatic interplanetary station, photographed the reverse side of the Moon.
  • In 1960, the plant begins production of amateur 8-mm film cameras "Quartz".
  • In 1965-1971, a high-precision astronomical installation VAU was developed and manufactured for photographing space objects, determining their coordinates and orbits. The weight of the installation reached 30 tons. Subsequently, the experience of work on this installation was used to create the Okno optoelectronic complex for monitoring outer space.
  • In 1966, the serial production of Zenit-E and Photosniper cameras and a 16-mm Krasnogorsk movie camera began. In 1967, the Horizon panoramic camera was released, which won several gold medals at exhibitions. In 1968 the enterprise mastered the production of lenses for television cameras.
  • In 1976 the enterprise was transformed into the production association (PO) "Krasnogorsk Plant", which included a number of enterprises for the production of optical devices. In the same year, the Zenit-TTL”, And in 1979 the enterprise was named after S. A. Zverev. Work has begun on the development and creation of the Okno optoelectronic space control complex (the installation of the complex was completed in 1988 and was put on alert in 1999).
  • In 1990, the Shkval surveillance and sighting systems for helicopters and airplanes were put into production.
  • In 1993 the enterprise was corporatized and transformed into OJSC Krasnogorsk Plant named after S. A. Zvereva "(JSC KMZ). In 1995, the Central Design Bureau (CDB) was renamed the Scientific and Technical Center (STC). In 2004, the enterprise received the status of the Federal Research and Production Center for several years. In the 2000s, the plant tried to master the mass production of cameras of relatively progressive models, in particular, Zenit-KM, which was equipped with a built-in electric drive for automatic platoon shutter and rewind the film. In parallel, the modernized Zenits of the old model range continued to be produced. Since 2005, the production of Zenit cameras was discontinued by the decision of the plant's board of directors, and only Horizont film panoramic cameras and several names of interchangeable lenses remained in production.
  • On September 7, 2012, the Helios Trade and Exhibition Center was reopened, which had been in operation for a little over two years (closed in January 2015).
  • On September 19, 2012, it was announced that the release of three previously produced threaded lenses was resumed: MC Mir-20M, Helios-40-2 and MC APO Telezenitar-M 2,8 / 135.
  • In 2018, together with Leica Camera AG, the Zenit-M camera was presented, developed on the basis of the German Leica M typ 240 camera. This product is equipped with the Russian super-fast Zenitar 1,0 / 35 lens.
  • At the beginning of 2016, a photographic equipment plant produces several types of photographic lenses.

Director of KMZ

  • Kolychev, Vladimir Alexandrovich (1942-1946) - the first director of KMZ since its foundation.
  • Skarzhinsky, Dmitry Frantsevich (1946-1950)
  • Solovyov, Andrey Fedorovich (1950-1953)
  • Egorov, Nikolay Mikhailovich (1953-1965)
  • Voronin, Lev Alekseevich (1965-1968)
  • Kreopalov, Vladislav Ivanovich (1968-1973)
  • Ustinov, Oleg Mikhailovich (1973-1975)
  • Trifonov, Vilor Grigorievich (1975-1986)
  • Goev, Alexander Ivanovich (1986-2006)
  • Zhigulich, Valery Petrovich (2006—2011)
  • Tarasov, Alexander Petrovich (2011—2014) [14]
  • Patrikeev, Alexey Pavlovich (2014—2016)
  • Kalyugin Vadim Stanislavovich (from January 12, 2016 to October 28, 2019)
  • Novikov Alexander Valerievich (since October 28, 2019)

Activities

The main areas of activity PJSC KMZ are development and creation:

  • surveillance and sighting aircraft systems;
  • fire control systems for armored vehicles;
  • space control devices;
  • systems for remote sensing of the Earth from space and from airborne vehicles;
  • laser rangefinders, target designators, all-day surveillance systems, sights for small arms (for example, the Hyperon series);
  • optoelectronic equipment, civil, scientific technology;
  • medical devices in the following areas: gynecology, proctology, ophthalmology, endoprosthetics;
  • photographic equipment;
  • observation devices.
  • scientific instrument making: scientific and analytical equipment for carrying out fundamental research, creating high technologies, new defense technology, solving national economic problems in various fields of science, technology and production;
  • calculation and design of optical systems, objective construction.

In addition, PJSC KMZ carries out measures for the repair of military equipment, warranty and designer supervision over its condition, implements proposals in the field of military-technical cooperation of the Russian Federation with foreign states in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation.

Some products and developments

  • «Hyperon"- a series of pankratic sights designed for reconnaissance of targets and aimed fire from sniper rifles (SVD, SVDK, etc.).
  • «Glow"- thermal imaging surveillance and sighting system, designed to modernize the standard surveillance and sighting system"Rainbow-Sh»Combat helicopters Mi-24P and Mi-35.
  • "Aurora" - optical-electronic equipment of the visible range for remote sensing of the Earth, installed on the small spacecraft "Mezhevikin".

Abramov Georgy. Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant

Since the history of the development of the Soviet camera industry cannot be imagined without a separate mention of the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant, I decided to write this material after visiting the plant's Museum of Labor and Military Glory. Many of you and I have a very ambiguous attitude towards the plant and its products, but history is still facts, not emotions. In addition, it must be borne in mind that photographic and cinematographic equipment, as well as optics for them, have never been for the plant. main products. Therefore, most of what was produced by the plant will remain outside the scope of this article.

* * *
The official date of birth of the plant is considered to be February 1, 1942. It all started much earlier. At the beginning of 1918, the optical production in St. Petersburg (which united the two former Riga factories of Zeiss and Hertz) was evacuated to Voronezh in connection with the government's move to Moscow and the danger of the capture of Petrograd by the Germans. Along with the equipment, about 300 people arrived in Voronezh. However, in the summer of the same year, when General Krasnov was advancing from the south, the plant was transferred to Perm, where about 70 people were seconded, high-class opticians, without whom it would have been impossible to establish production. We arrived in Perm in early August and settled in an abandoned distillery. Less than two months later, under the threat of Kolchak's offensive, the plant was evacuated to Podolsk, where production was located in the annex of the main building of the mechanical plant, formerly. company "Singer". It should be noted that the main products of the plant in those years were artillery sights and binoculars.

The plant remained in Podolsk until 1927. In the early 20s, a new production was born at the plant - spectacle optics. Here excerpt from the newspaper "Podolsky Rabochy" on January 11, 1924: "Optical items, including glasses, were imported into the USSR from abroad, mainly from Germany. The hunger for spectacle goods arose due to the closure of the foreign market and the blockade of the USSR ... That is why spectacle production was equipped in the city of Podolsk ... The new ... production dragged out a miserable existence for the first two years.

There were no gadgets, machines, tools. The glass was poorly processed. Now, in 1924, with the receipt of orders, the production of glasses was expanded; powerful new machines were installed. Now up to 30 thousand dozen pairs of spectacle lenses are produced per month and 70 thousand frames for them. Our spectacle products are only slightly inferior in quality to those of Germany. " During this period of time, the annual purchase of eyeglass optics abroad was made in the amount of about 2 million rubles in gold. Since 1925, glass of domestic (Izyum) production has been used for the production of spectacle lenses.

Due to the need to expand production, it was decided to move the plant to another location. The choice fell on the small village of Banki in the Pavshinskaya volost of the Moscow district. Here, 20 km from Moscow, the buildings of the former weaving and dyeing factories were empty. In the spring of 1927, the last echelon with the equipment of the optical plant left Podolsk, and about 200 people, the best cadres of opticians, went to the village of Banki (the future city of Krasnogorsk).

The following years passed under the sign of reconstruction and construction. In 1930, when it was created VOOMP, which included almost all optical production in the country, it was decided to turn to Germany for technical assistance - after all, we did not have our own experience in the design and construction of such factories at that time. However, the negotiations ended in vain. German industrialists, in addition to 3 million rubles in gold, demanded guarantees that the new plant would not sell equipment on the foreign market for 10 years after the completion of construction. As a result, everything was done by hand. In addition to the construction of a foundry, mechanical, repair and tool shops, a forge and the main assembly shop, in 1931 the factory FZU (factory school) began its work, which was supposed to become a "forge of personnel" for the enterprise.

By 1932, the output of products in comparison with 1928 increased 4,7 times. 11 devices have already been put into series. Here is a curious statement by the Soviet physicist, one of the organizers of the optical industry in the USSR, Academician DS Rozhdenstvensky, dated 1922: “A future war ... if only there will be, there will be a brutal, technical, merciless war. Victory will not be determined by the number of soldiers, it will be determined ... at least by the ability to make photographic lenses for reconnaissance shooting from airplanes or sights for throwing destructive shells from airplanes. But if there is no war ... there will be a more immediate and persistent need to promote the progress of optical glass, without which there is neither knowledge of nature, nor power over it. " Gradually, thanks in part to strong ties with GOI, the quality and complexity of the manufactured products began to increase. The enthusiasm of the plant workers, "Stakhanovites", "excellent workers", "shock workers", etc. played an important role in increasing production volumes and improving the quality of products. Now it is difficult for us not only to understand all this, but simply even to imagine, but in those years it was a reality that played an important role in the life of both the country and the plant.

By 1937, in comparison with 1932, the output of the plant increased 5,4 times. During this period, in addition to military products, the plant also produced optimometers, microscopes, photographic lenses, binoculars, etc.

In February 1942 the enterprise received a new name - State Union Plant N393 of the USSR People's Commissariat of Armaments, later transformed into the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant.

In 1942, it was decided to take the rest of the machinery and equipment from the State Optical and Mechanical Plant from Leningrad to Krasnogorsk. In the same year, 9 new devices for the front were mastered, in particular: a large stereoscope, a tank commander's panorama, a periscopic artillery compass, a mechanical mortar sight. The first domestic slit aerial camera, ASCHAFA-2, has been modified and mastered in production. In 1943, a group of engineers and technicians from the Kharkov plant, where FED was produced in the pre-war years, arrived at the plant from evacuation. In 1944, special design bureaus for aerial photographic equipment and artillery optical devices were organized with the simultaneous organization of experimental workshops for the manufacture of prototypes and experimental series of equipment being created - the basis of the future Central Design Bureau of the plant.

Immediately after the end of the war, KMZ received a task to produce peaceful products: projection devices for the State Library named after V.I. Lenin, theater binoculars, the first batch of which was bought by the Bolshoi Theater, magnifiers, and, finally, cameras... In 1947, the plant received a large number of new equipment and significantly expanded its production area. It was at this time that the foundation was laid for the production of photographic equipment and scientific instruments. From this moment on, the following equipment is adjacent to the plant's products: civilian products (photographic equipment and scientific instrumentation) and special (read - military) equipment (aerial photographic equipment, sighting devices and infrared equipment).

In 1946 - the release of the first domestic folding medium-format rangefinder amateur camera "Moscow-1". The device was not distinguished by elegance. Difficulties were also experienced during its manufacture - at first, the technology did not go well, and the assemblers did not have the proper qualifications and experience. Nevertheless, over time, things got better. The factory learned how to make gates - the release of the central shutter "Moment". A year later, in 1947, a new model of the camera appeared - "Moscow-2", which became serial for a long time. The first 25 pieces were made for the 800th anniversary of Moscow. In the same year, a workshop for photographic lenses was created.

In 1948, the first 50 Zorky devices were produced, the basis of which was the model of the Kharkov FED, and by the end of the year, more than 1,5 thousand units were assembled. This device is associated with the appearance of the plant brand, which since July 1948 was installed on all devices manufactured by KMZ. The actual name "Sharp" appeared in April 1949. The first conveyor, launched in March 1949, is also connected with "Zorky". With the launch of the conveyor, labor productivity increased 5 times. It is important to note that in the Zorky chambers, in contrast to the FED, from the very beginning the working distance was standard - 28,8 mm. Some of the models in 1948 were produced with an additional exposure of 1/1000 (similar to the FED-S model), and starting from about 1950 the release button was modernized - for a cable.

The first released lenswe were "Industar-22" 3,5 / 52 in retractable hull and "Jupiter-8" 2/50 (originally "ZK-50/2), as well as" Jupiter-3 "1,5 / 50 (" ZK- 50 / 1,5). Moreover, some of the lenses were made with bayonetmount for cameras "Kiev". At first, the shop of photographic lenses produced no more than 300 pieces per month, and three years later the productivity increased to 4 thousand pieces per month. By the beginning of the 50s, the workshop had mastered more than two dozen products. In 1949, the world's first electron microscope began to be manufactured, created in collaboration with scientists from the Vavilov State Optical Institute.

In 1952, a new small-format SLR camera was born “Zenit“, Which laid the foundation for a whole family of cameras.

It is curious that in the 40s - 60s the plant really cared about improving the quality of its products: for example, if in 1949 the plant received 0,94% of claims with respect to the production of the Zorky camera, then in 1952 it received only 0,24%. Pick up any Zenith or Sharpness of the mid-50s and compare the quality of their workmanship and assembly with modern Zenits. I think the conclusion will be unambiguous.

It should be noted here that the history of the plant, like any other enterprise, cannot exist on its own, without the personalities and destinies of people who gave the plant, without exaggeration, the best years of their lives. For the sake of fairness, it should be noted that the history of the Krasnogorsk plant as presented by V.L. Rapoport consists of 90% of stories about people. However, within the framework of this article, I did not plan to cover all sides of this difficult issue.

By the end of 1954, despite a number of difficulties, the production of cameras was significantly increased: for example, the production of "Moscow-2" increased by 78%, "Zorky-3" - by 86%, "Zenith" - by 202% compared to 1953 year. Now in the photo assembly shop, instead of three, 11 conveyor lines worked. If in 1953 the total output of photographic equipment was more than 180 thousand cameras, then in 1954 it grew to 300 thousand. By the end of 1955, about 3000 of the first "Jupiters-9" were produced for the rangefinder Kiev.

In 1956, the production of lenses was launched "Industar-24, Helios-44, Jupiter-11. Preparations were under way for the production of lenses "Mir-1 "," Helios-40 "," Tair-3 "," MTO-500 "," MTO-1000 ". In the same 1956, an exhibition of Soviet and foreign photographic equipment was organized at the plant. Here is one of the entries left by a group of designers in the guestbook: “Our devices are not inferior to foreign ones in operation, and the image quality is better here. The decoration of our devices is worse, and you should pay attention to this ... ”.

Section of the assembly line of photographic lenses at KMZ, 1956
At the turn of 1956-57 he went into series "Sharp-4" - perhaps the most massive and most popular domestic rangefinder camera. A year later appeared “Zorky-5"and "Sharp-6" - a lever cocking, a hinged rear wall, a one-piece body, an enlarged rangefinder base, a modernized design and at the same time, for some reason, a reduced range of burnouts (unfortunately, the history of the domestic camera industry consists entirely of achievements and such inconsistencies). In the same years, a semi-professional "Start" appeared and a miniature DSLR completely unique for its time - "Narcissus". In the same 1957, the Iskra medium format camera was launched.

In 1957, the first images of the earth's surface from space were obtained using serial aerial photographic equipment created by the plant (AFA-39). In the same years, under the leadership of the Moscow State University professor Lebedinsky, together with the designers of the KMZ A.V. Grushiskim, V.I.Shtannikov and others, the S-180 camera was created, which made it possible to automatically photograph the sky with an angle of view equal to 180 °. The camera was charged with ordinary 35-mm film, the supply of which was designed for 3 thousand frames.

In 1958, specially for the World Exhibition in Brussels, constructors G.M.Dorsky, A.P. Orlov, V.I.Pluzhnikov created a small-format camera of a fundamentally new design with automatic setting of shutter speed and aperture, called "Comet". At the same time, GM Dorskiy, Ch.S. Zamanskaya and others developed the stereoscopic apparatus "Astra". And although these cameras were not put into mass production, they "demonstrated a high level of development of design capabilities in the preparation of new Soviet equipment" (Rapoport VL, "Masters of Optics").

The result of the first participation of the plant in international exhibitions was the receipt of the highest award ("Grand Prix") in Brussels for a set of photographic lenses (these were lenses for "Start" - "Mir-1", "Helios-44", "Tair-11", "Jupiter-6", "Tair-3"). The Diploma of Honor and the Gold Medal were awarded to the EM-5 electron microscope, the FP-22 high-speed filming camera and the S-180 camera.

The movement of inventors and rationalizers was of great importance in those years. Complex teams of innovators were created at the plant. One of these teams received a proposal to combine the top cover of the outer casing cover, the curtain shutter, the objective plateau and the camera rangefinder body into one cast piece (before, these parts were made separately and attached to each other). To evaluate the effect of the implementation of this proposal, you need to imagine that the top cover of the camera underwent 19 mechanical and finishing operations; curtain body shutter had 18 mechanical operations. Just by reducing the machining of parts on each machine, the time savings were about 46 minutes. In monetary terms, the total savings during the transition to casting amounted to at least 200 thousand rubles a year (for comparison, the average engineering salary in the country at that time was about 800 - 900 rubles).

In 1959, the far side of the Moon was photographed for the first time in world practice. The photographic equipment AFA-E1, created by the plant, was installed on the interplanetary automatic station.

In 1961, the plant mastered 22 new products, including serial production of 8-mm film cameras "Quartz" and "Quartz-2".

By 1963, the plant produced the 4 millionth camera. It turned out to be "Zenit-3M". By this time, Zorky-4 was rolling off the assembly line every minute and Zorky-6 every minute and a half. Were prepared for release Zenit-4, Zenit-5, Zenit-6. In the same year, 1963, prototypes of new devices were manufactured - "Zorky-10" and "Zorky-11". By the mid-60s, the production of new lenses was launched: Orion-15, Vega-1, Industar-24M, Jupiter-21, Telemar-22, Mir-5, Mir-6, Tair-38, Rubin "," Helios-65Ts "," Jupiter-25Ts "(the last two for Zenit4 - Zenit6 cameras).

In the same years, imports developed successfully - 59 countries bought the plant's products. Cameras "Zenit-4", "Zenit-5", and the film camera "Kvarts-3" were in special demand. Here is what the English journalist J. Buxton wrote in early 1964 in Today magazine: “Recently I tried several of the latest Russian cameras and can honestly declare that these are excellent products. ... I got acquainted with the whole range of Russian lenses ... and I was especially impressed by the compactness of their telephoto lenses, our telephoto lenses are often very bulky. Russian products are carefully made, very comfortable, exceptionally well designed. "

Nowadays, few people remember that in the early 60s there was a bureau of good offices "Thank you", which made repairs of photo and movie cameras on a voluntary basis (that is, free of charge - a great marketing ploy!). Initially, the bureau worked in Krasnogorsk, then it was transferred to the "Kinolyubitel" on Leninsky Prospekt (Moscow). This tactic led to an increase in the popularity of the plant's products and a revival in the circles of the photopublic.

Why am I presenting all these facts here? Many may think that I, like the ideological communists, have remained entirely in the past, consoling myself with thoughts such as “everything was better than now” or “the best products in the world are Soviet ones”. Agree - it's funny. Moreover, now I am happy - freedom, choice, opportunities, the realization of which depends only on you.

However, I am very upset by the words that all Soviet photographic products are complete crap! Yes, unfortunately, what we see now on store shelves (and in many respects it is KMZ products) is really almost unusable, especially in comparison with imported photographic equipment. And this situation did not begin to take shape yesterday. But! Firstly, what was produced before the beginning of the 70s worked, and on the whole it was not bad. By the mid-70s, as you know, the situation began to change - new models appeared less often, and the build quality began to decline and is now at a level lower than anywhere else. Do not forget, in addition, that imported photographic equipment (except for insignificant lots of expensive "Praktika") was not sold in the country, and many of us were happy having bought our first "Zenith". And secondly, given the economic system under which our country existed before perestroika, it could not be otherwise! It's amazing that at least some of the products worked well. And thirdly, as it seems to me, it is impossible to assess the situation of the past tense only from the position of today, because we can very easily fall into a mistake. And finally. Reading the respected magazine "Phototechnics & Video Cameras" (from the "Consumer" series) No. 11'99 under the heading "School 'Consumer' - History of Phototechnics" we find a fascinating article by Mr. D. Chichkin "A Brief History of SLR Cameras". Excellent material with good illustrations, from which, however, it turns out that such a country as the Soviet Union or Russia did not exist at all. With which I congratulate all of us.

So, back to history. By the mid-60s, when the main dominant idea in Soviet industry was the development of new products, the plant launched a series of new "Sharp" - 10, 11, 12. However, the desire to quickly launch new brands of devices into production led to a rush, which affected on quality. Some products turned out to be structural and technological flaws. So, "Sharp-10" won international recognition (in particular - the Gold Medal at the International Fair in Leipzig, 1965), but its mass production was difficult and expensive.Gazeta Patriot 1961 01 05

One of the problems in those years was the petal tape, which was used to make the central gateov. Until the beginning of the 60s, the only company that owned the secret and monopoly of the production of high-quality petal ribbon was a (?) Swedish company. KMZ badly needed such a tape of domestic production. One of its founders was the chief metallurgist of the plant I.E.Dunaev. For six years, a team of inventors headed by Dunaev went to the Izhevsk Metallurgical Plant and was engaged in this work. In 1963, our industry finally began to produce a petal tape better than the Swedish one: central gateS made from imported tape had a shutter speed limit of 1 / 500th of a second, while Soviet tape allowed a speed of 1 / 1200th of a second. Needless to say, this had a significant economic effect.

By 1964, they began to produce Zenit-4, 5, 6, preparing for the release of "Zenit-E", "Photosniper", movie camera "Krasnogorsk". By the time of release Zenita-E (1966) a constant sight mirror in it was a significant innovation for the plant.

In the same years, the plant continued to produce its main non-household products. In 1965, the development (manufactured in 1970) of a unique high-precision astronomical installation (VAU) began for photographing space objects in order to determine the coordinates and trajectories of flight. Installation weight - 30 tons. In 1967, together with the Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, a high-speed installation was developed - a waiting time magnifier (ZhLV-2) with a maximum shooting frequency of up to 4,5 million frames per second. In 1968, the serial production of gyro-stabilized devices for working from moving objects with an integrated base rangefinder began. That year, with the participation of the SI Vavilov State Optical Institute, a large-size high-resolution lens "Mezon-2A" was developed and mastered in production, which is used in equipment for photographing the earth's surface from artificial earth satellites. The weight lens 500 kg, lens diameter - 600 mm.

In 1967, to replace the previously produced panoramic camera FT-2 came "Horizon", received the gold medal of the Exhibition of Economic Achievements. Preparations for release began in 1968 lens "Mir-10", and the next year the first "Fotons" appeared - analogs of the imported "Polaroid".

Towards the end of the 60s cameras with the brand of the plant were exported not only to developing countries, but also to Germany, Italy, Austria, France, England, where they successfully competed with Western products. In 1968 several thousand cameras were sold in England, and orders for them grew. The greatest demand was for Zenit-E and the Quartz movie camera. 4 thousand British shops were selling Soviet photographic equipment.

all products 1970s

By the early 70s, lenses such as “Industar-60N, Helios-9-7M, Variogir 1-T, Mart-1, Meteor-5, Meteor-8M, Jupiter-21M, Era-6M. In 1972, the release of the camera began Zenit-EM“, Enjoyed truly popular love.

In 1973, the production of new aerial cameras for planned and long-range perspective photography, the first hydrostabilized aircraft device in the Union and an optical-photographic slit apparatus for large-scale imagery from space was launched. In the same year, Zenit-TTL and Zenit-16 appear on the shelves - a camera of a fundamentally new design. Both new items had TTL-metering, which was a step forward from previous models.

In the mid-70s, the Czechoslovak magazine Photograph wrote: “Zenit-E "- a camera that can do everything ... "Zenit-EM" and "Zenit-E" are among the cheapest and at the same time the highest quality devices, which are very popular from Czechoslovakia, England and other countries. "

In 1979, the release begins Zenita-19“, And next year -“ Zenith-18 ”, which was soon discontinued due to design flaws. In the same 1979, the popular English magazine for amateur photographers "What camera?" recognized "Zenit-EM" as the best device of the year.

 

all products 1980s

Использованная литература:
1. VL Rapoport, "Masters of Optics" (Pages of the History of the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor of the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant), Moscow, "Moscow Worker", 1983.
2. Materials of the Museum of Labor and Military Glory of the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant.

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From the memoirs of Vladimir Alexandrovich Kalinin

Development of Soviet space optics began precisely at the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant. In the 60s, our plant, together with the Leningrad State Optical Institute, was instructed to develop optics for space stations. The main purpose of these cameras is military intelligence. The main thing in the design, of course, was the lens - the heart of the camera. The 10th workshop was engaged in the manufacture of the experimental model. I was the head of the technical control department and selected the products. The apparatus was very massive and heavy. The main problem was precisely in the fastening of the equipment, and there were increased requirements for it. And at the plant there was only an old casting technology - it was poured into the ground, and the metal turned out to be porous, weak. Porosity interfered with strength. Everyone understood that such casting did not theoretically meet the requirements of the project, and time was running out and it was time to report and present a sample. The military representative at the plant was N.I. Mozgalev, who was also rushed.

And so, we together with him selected several of the most suitable designs *, prepared an experimental sample and sent it for testing at our own peril and risk. When the device was launched, we all waited for the mount to break off. We thought it wouldn’t stand it. But the tests gave good results. This experiment was the beginning of the Soviet space exploration. The plant constantly developed new models of technology, experiments were carried out regularly. However, not all developments had the necessary equipment, and much had to be done by ourselves. So, when we were developing autopilots for space rockets, we needed a frequency of 400 Hz for measurements. The industrial frequency at that time was * only 50 Hz, and the factory did not have a single device of the required frequency. Then, in laboratory conditions, we had to create a 50 Hz apparatus from static devices * tuned to a frequency of 400 Hz. The device was made, it was certified in the Chamber of Weights and Measures and thus equipped the laboratory with the necessary apparatus for work.

KMZ has always produced about 50 percent of civilian products. For example, military enterprises similar to ours * produced no more than 7 percent. The quality of our civilian electronics was unfortunately poor. For good quality, parts were needed from gold, silver, platinum, and other rare metals, and this was all considered a strategic raw material and was used exclusively for military equipment. The plant then had its own ** firm in England - "TOE". It was there that most of our products were sent, which provided a serious influx of currency. The British knew about the peculiarities of our products and carefully monitored us. When we passed cameras, the British practically completely disassembled them ***, checked the quality of parts and assemblies, then assembled them, packed them into beautiful bags of their own manufacture, and only then sent them to stores.

Notes:
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kalinin - worked his way up at the plant from a tuner to the First Deputy Chief Controller of the plant.
Source: Advertising newspaper Novy Avangard, February 4, 2002.
*) - No comments, because there are too many puzzling questions for the author ...
**) - TOE (Technical Optic Equipment) did not belong to KMZ, so the word "own" can be used only in a figurative sense ...
***) - This statement, according to the recollections of other participants in the events, does not correspond to reality.

Vyacheslav Feday. Lenses with the KMZ brand

The first lens manufactured by the factory - Industar-23 4,5 / 110 (assembled according to the optical scheme of the world famous "Tessara", Mounted in the central gatee "Moment-1"), Intended for installation on the first cameras of the"Moscow«.

This lens turned out to be successful, its optical assembly in a magnifier frame is still available on the market today. "Industar-24" 3,5 / 105, which was equipped with the camera "Moscow-5". A small batch of these telephoto lenses was also produced for small-format Zenit-type DSLRs. The lens turned out to be a good design. for large-format cameras "Industar-58" 3,5 / 75... The owners of Iskra camera models praise the quality of this lens... The first lens produced by the factory - “Industar-23 ″ 4,5 / 110 (assembled according to the optical scheme of the world famous "Tessara", mounted in the central gatee "Moment-1"), intended for installation on the first cameras of the "Moscow" type.

The next was “Industar-77 ″ 5,6 / 120 for a camera of one-step process "Photon", which, unfortunately, did not appear on the market.

With the release of the camera “Zorki"Serial production of the first lenses began"Jupiter-8 ″ 2/52 and Industar-22 3,5 / 52, & lt; / RTI & gt; optical circuits are similar schemes of German lenses "Zonnar" and "Tessar". In photographic reference books of the late 40-50s. You can find the original name of this series of lenses ("ZK"), which later received the name "Jupiter". "Wide-angle" "Jupiter-12" 2,8 / 35 began its life under the name "BK-35«. «Jupiter-9 ″ 2/85 and Jupiter-11 ″ 4/135... They used the optical design of the Zonnar lenses for the Kontax camera. The lenses of the Jupiter series were designed in a frame with a threaded connection for the Zorky M39x1 and a focal length of 28 mm and proved to be long-livers. "Jupiter-8" and "Jupiter-9" are produced in small quantities even today.

In the late 50s. to replace the standard lens "Industar-22 ″, which equipped not only Zorky cameras, but also the first Zenits, came Industar-50 3,5 / 52. Outwardly, it did not differ from its predecessor, but the recalculated optical design provided a significant increase in its optical characteristics, which made it possible to obtain sharper and more contrasting negatives.

The manufacturability of the assembly of optical elements, the simplicity of the frame, and, consequently, the low cost provided “Industaru-50»Long life. It should be added that "Industar-50" in frames for "DSLRs" went to the complete set of "Zenith" cameras of various modifications literally until recently. Another lens for rangefinder cameras was “Mercury-1"2/52 for the" Comet "camera, marked at the World Brussels Exhibition in 1958. However, the" Mercury-1 "did not go into industrial production, although it had high optical characteristics. An excellent five-element lens has become standard "Vega 3»2,8 / 50, which had almost record optical characteristics by that time.

The presence of a central shutter in these cameras made it possible to get excellent negatives in sharpness. For the first time in the country, a 8-lens variable focal length lens was developed for the Zenit-14 camera.Rubin-1C"2,8 / 37-80. As replacements were released in a small batch of "wide-angle" "Mir-1Ts”2,8 / 37,“ televik ”“ Tair-38C ”4/135 and“ Jupiter-25C ”2,8 / 85 for portrait photography.

Automatic cameras "Zorky-10", "Zorky-11" were equipped with a specially designed lens "Industar-63 ″ 2,8 / 45, and the semi-format "Zorky-12"- an excellent lens"Helios-98 ″ 2,8 / 28.

The release of the first Zenit SLR camera at the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant raised the question of developing interchangeable lenses for it as well. At first, Zenit was produced with the lens "Industar-22«, Which with a shortened frame was used with a flange distance of 45,2 mm. Then "Zenith" began to be equipped with a high-aperture lens "Helios-44" 2/58, designed according to an optical scheme similar to the German lens "Biotar "2/58 for SLR cameras" Ekzakta "and" Practice«. «Helios-44"Went through a number of modifications and was produced for cameras"Zenit-ET, Zenit-12SD, Zenit-122, Zenit-Avtomat, Zenit-Am and Zenit-Am-2.

With the transition of SLR cameras to connecting thread М42х1 с working distance 45,5mm, which corresponded to the threaded connection widespread in the world, the lens began to be produced with these new parameters and, like all other lenses, received an additional index in the name "2" - "Helios-44-2"... The first attempt to introduce a jumping aperture mechanism into the lens was made for the Start-2 camera, but this lens did not go into production. In the lens Helios-44-1 for Zenit-7 not perfect design of the mechanism of the jumping diaphragm forced it to radically rework. Therefore, cameras of the Zenit-EM type and other subsequent modifications, which have mechanisms of a jumping or push diaphragm, received a new lens. "Helios-44M"... This type lens has a switch for aperture control from the camera mechanism - "A" and manual - "M". All interchangeable and standard lenses with the designation “M” after the name are equipped with a jumping (more correctly - blinking) aperture mechanism.

Photographic equipment manufacturers in Japan back in the late 60s. mastered the production of lenses with multilayer coating, which significantly improved the image quality by increasing the light transmittance, color clarity and contrast, as well as reducing light scattering. An indication of the presence of multilayer enlightenment is the abbreviation MC (from the English MultyCoating), which has become widespread among most foreign companies, which is usually placed before the name lens.

The first lenses with multilayer coating KMZ began to produce only in the early 80s. (MS "Helios-44M-4"). There are conflicting judgments about the quality of "Helios" -type lenses - some samples provide mediocre image quality, while others provide excellent, which indicates that the optical design of "Helios" has not fully exhausted its capabilities. This confirms the release lens MS "Helios-44M-6" with increased optical characteristics (the resolution according to TU is at least 45mm-1 in the center of the field, at least 25mm-1 at the edges of the field). At present, the serial production of the "Helios-44M-7" MC has been started with a resolution according to TU in the center of the field not less than 50 mm-1, and at the edges of the field not less than 30 mm-1.

Let's go back to the review of the lens line for Zenits. As well as "Helios-44" a "wide-angle" was developed Mir-1 2,8 / 37, which was awarded the Gold Medal at the Brussels World Exhibition in 1958. The lens gave excellent image quality, which won universal recognition. It was produced at KMZ for several years, its production was transferred to other enterprises, currently under the name "Mir-1V" it is produced by the PA "Vologda Optical and Mechanical Plant". The KMZ mastered the production of lenses for portrait photography: "Jupiter-9" 2/85 and "Helios-40" 1,5 / 85, which are still in constant demand. At present, the production of Jupiter-9 2/85 has been transferred to PA Rubin, and Helios-40-2 1,5 / 85 is still in production.

For some time, the televics developed at the plant were produced: Jupiter-11 4/135, Tair-11 2,8 / 135, Jupiter-6 2,8 / 180, Jupiter-21 4/200, Telemar-22 5,6 / 200 , "Tair-3" 4,5 / 300, "MTO-500", "MTO-1000" with connecting thread М39х1 and a flange distance of 45,2 mm. Since the beginning of the 70s, when all "SLRs" switched to the M42x1 threaded attachment and the 45 mm flange distance, on some lenses the frame design was changed, it became possible to use a replaceable adapter (shank) for attaching lens to different cameras. These lenses received the index “A” in the name: “Vega-13A 2,8 / 100, Tair-11A 2, 8/135, Jupiter-21 A 4/200, Telemar-22A 5,6 / 200, Mir-10A 3,5 / 28. Lens manufacturing Mir-1, Jupiter-9, Jupiter-11, Tair-3, MTO-500 and MTO-1000 was transferred to other enterprises. Lenses with a jumping aperture mechanism have been mastered.

How the staff were developed Industar-61M 2,8 / 52, Helios-97M 2/50, Era-6M 1,5 / 50 with high optical characteristics (see table). Small batches of them went on sale, but did not go into mass production. Unfortunately, the same fate befell good lenses "Vega-13A "2,8 / 100 and" Vega-13M "2,8 / 100.

In the late 70s. for a new family of "DSLRs", which began with Zenit-19, a stock lens was developed Zenitar-M 1,7 / 50... With a device for electrically transmitting aperture values ​​to the EI camera called MS "Zenitar ME-1" 1,7 / 50, it was released for a short time for the Zenit-18 camera. Mir-20M 3,5 / 20 wide-angle lenses were developed and put on sale in small series (in a modernized frame, with multilayer coating under the name Mir-20M 3,5 / 20 MC, it is still being produced), Mir-24M "2/35 (" SF ", 1986,? 9). Lenses such as MS "Zodiac-2M-2" 3,5 / 15 of the "fisheye" type, "Mir-10M" 3,5 / 28, MS "Telezenitar-M" 2,8 / 135 (not to be confused with MS APO "Telezenitar M" 2,8 / 135), MS "Telezenitar-M" 4,5 / 300. These lenses were demonstrated at various exhibitions and fairs, were listed in product catalogs, were awarded with VDNKh medals, but never appeared on the shelves. In 1990, a new standard MS “Helios-77M-4” 1,8 / 50 lens made by “Vologda OMZ” PA for the design development of the KMZ went on sale. It differs from the usual "Helios-44M-4" in a slightly larger relative aperture and angular field of view and smaller dimensions. Enhanced resolution lens it does not give a noticeable advantage over its predecessor.

A new six-element lens was introduced last year MS "Zenitar-M" 1,9 / 52 with high optical performance. It goes on sale as an interchangeable lens, it is assumed that in the future some Zenits will be equipped with it. Since 1986, the Zenit-automatic machine began to go on sale, the first camera with bayonetconnection type "K" and a working distance of 45,5 mm. This attachment, developed by the Japanese firm Asahi Pentax for a new generation of cameras, has become widespread.

Now it is possible to use all lenses with M42x1 thread and 45,5 mm flange distance through the adapter ring. Connection type "K" equipped with equipment "Rico", "Chinon", "Kosina", "Vivitar", "Ekzakta"... Currently, with the attachment "K", there are "Zenit-automatic", "Zenit-Am", "Zenit-Am-2" on sale complete with a standard lens MS "Helios-44K-4" 2/58... Interchangeable lenses for this type of camera had to wait until 1990. The first lens to lead the future lens lineup with bayonetom "K", became MS "Zenitar-K" 2,8 / 16 of the "fisheye" type. In the future, all lenses for Zenit cameras will be called Zenitar, Variozenitar, and Telezenitar. To expand creativity lens Fisheye, the plant has released a set of 10 filters for special effects in art photography, which went on sale. Available for sale MC "Variozenitar-K" 2,8-3,5 / 25-45, which filled the places of "wide-angle" in the line of lenses of the "K" type. According to the optical scheme "Mira-64" is being prepared for production MS "Zenitar-K" 2,8 / 20, which will possibly replace IS "Mir-20M" 3,5 / 20.

Development of a super-fast "wide-angle" MS "Mir -46K»1,4 / 35 did not go into mass production. The optical scheme "Gelionar" is implemented in the lens MS "Zenitar-1K" 1,4 / 85, a small batch of which was already on sale. The development of a new optical scheme for a high-aperture normal lens MS "Zenitar-K2" 1,4 / 50. Telephoto lens has become an interesting development MS APO "Telezenitar-K" 4,5 / 300, which has not only record optical characteristics, but also dimensions (its length does not even reach 150 mm). In the elements of the optical scheme, special types of glass are used in optical performance close to fluorite.

Focusing lens is carried out not only by moving the optical unit, but also by moving the internal components of the optical circuit, which made it possible to create a small-sized design. It is planned to develop frame designs with connection "K" for high-quality lens MS APO "Telezenitar-K" 2,8 / 135, which is produced with a threaded connection. Preparing for production MC "Variozenitar-K" 4 / 70-210, small-sized MC "Variozenitar-K" 3,5-4,5 / 35-105 and MS "Variozenitar-K" 3,2-4,5 / 35-70. Of course, these are interesting novelties, and they will be a separate conversation. It is impossible to talk about all the developments that were carried out at the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant in the volume of a journal article, much has remained outside the scope of the material presented. In conclusion, I would like to wish the workers of the plant that new developments do not gather dust at the stands of numerous exhibitions, quickly move to store shelves, and from there to numerous photography lovers.

Lenses manufactured by the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant, manufactured since 1946

(Length lens indicated from the plane of its connection to the camera to the front end).

  1. Lenses for SLR cameras such as "Zenith", "Zenit-S", "Zenit-3", "Zenit-ZM", "Start", "Crystal" with a connecting thread М39 х 1 and a working distance of 45,2 mm
lens Rel. /

focal

distance

Angle

sp.

Qty

lenses

and comp.

Middle

Limit

focus.

K-t

light transmission.

Formula

color

Permission

cn .:

Centre/

edge

Thread

under

filters

Diameter

rims

Length Weight
World 1 2,8/37 60 6/5 0,7 0,78 15-0-0 45/23 M49x0,5 59 49 0.21
Industar-22 3,5/62 45 4/3 0,65 0.80 7-0-0 35/20 MZZH0.5 50 21 0.11
Industar-50 3,5/52 45 4/3 0,65 0,80 7-0-0 38/22 M5xO.XNUMX 50 21 0,1
Helios-44 2/58 40 6/4 0.5 0,81 10-0-1.5 35/14 M49X0.5 60 47 0,26
Helios-44 2/68 40 6/4 0,7 0,81 10-0-1,5 35/14 M40.5X0.5 57 48 0,23
Produced for the "Start" camera with bayonetnew accession
Vega 1 2,8/50 45 5/4 0,9 0,84 11-0-1 35/20 M40,5x0,5 58 47 0,18
Helios-40 1,5/85 28 6/4 0,8 0,75 12-0-3 32/16 M66X0.75 82 85 1,1
Jupiter 9 2/85 29 7/3 0,8 0.70 30/18 M49X0.5 68 60 0.42
Industar-24M 3,5/105 23 4/3 0,8 0.80 28/14 M40.5X0.5 60 89 0,31
Tair-11 2,8/135 18 4/3 1.5 0,80 11-0-3 28/18 M49X0.5 68 133 0,59
Jupiter 6 2,8/180 14 5/3 2 0,80 35/16 M77X0.75 90 123 1,5
Jupiter 21 4/200 12 4/3 2,5 0.82 10-0-1.5 40/30 M56X0.5 63 154 0,7
Telemar-22 5,6/200 12 4/3 2,5 0,85 12-0-1 40/25 M49X0.5 63 122 0.375
Tair-ZFS 4,5/300 8 3/3 3 0.80 10-0-0 36/30 M72x1 85 255 1.55
Produced for a photo shotgun based on the Zenit-EU camera
MTO-500 8/500 5 5/3 4 0,58 28/20 M77X0.75 107 164 1,5
MTO-1000 10/1000 2,5 5/3 10 0,58 28/16 M120X1 152 234 3,5
  1. Lenses for SLR cameras such as "Zenit-E", "B", "EM", "EV", "Zenit-7", "Zenit-16", "Zeit-TTL", "Zenit-10", "11" , "ЕТ", "12СD", "Zenit-19", "18", "Zenit-122" with a connecting thread М42х1 and a working distance of 45,5 mm
lens Rel. /

focal length

Vision angle Qty

lenses and components

Middle

Focus limit

Set light Color formula Permission

cn .:

center / edge

Thread

under filters

Frame diameter Length Weight
MS "Zodiac-2M-2" 3,5/15 180 9/5 0,2 0,85 48/18 M28X0.5 103 90 0,75
Produced by special orders
Mir-20M 3,5/20 96 9/8 0,18 0,75 11-0-2 50/20 M28x0.75 92 68 0,47
MS "Mir-20M" 3.5/20 96 9/8 0,18 0,90 11-0-0 50/20 M28X0.75 78 55 0,39
Mir-10A 3,5/28 75 8/7 0,2 0,74 15-0-2 42/20 M67X0.75 70 76 0,52
Mir-10M 3.5/28 75 8/7 0,25 0,74 15-0-2 42/20 M67x0,75 72 74 0,5
Development. Not serially produced
MS "Mir-24M" 2/35 66 8/7 0,3 0.90 11-0-0 40/21 M58X0.75 64 62 0,35
Development. Not serially produced
MS "Mir-47M" 2,5/20 96 9/8 0,25 0,80 11-0-0 60/17 M30,5x0,5 84 63 0,35
Development. Not serially produced
Industar-50-2 3,5/50 45 4/3 0,65 0,80 7-0-0 38/22 35,5x0,5 50 28 0.126
Industar-61M 2,8/50 46 4/3 0,45 0.80 11-0-1,5 45/30 M52x0,75 60 58 0,26
Development. Not serially produced
Helios-97M 2/52 45 6/5 0,45 0.81 13-0-1,5 48/27 M52x0,75 62 46 0,3
Development. Not serially produced
Era-6M 1,6/50 45 7/5 0,5 0,83 12-0-2 45/22 M58x0,75 70 66 0,37
Zenitar-M 1,7/50 46 6/4 0,45 0.82 11-0-0 43/24 M52X0.75 65 42 0.34
MS "Zenitar-ME-1" 1,7/50 46 6/4 0,45 0,90 11-0-0 43/24 M52x0,75 65 42 0,33
MS "Helios-77M-4" 1,8/52 44 6/4 0,45 0,90 11-0-0 45/25 M52X0.75 64 41 0,25
MS "Zenitar-M" 1.8/52 45 6/4 0,45 0,90 11-0-0 48/30 M52x0,75 64 42 0.24
Helios-44-2 2/68 40,5 6/4 0,5 0,82 10-0-1,5 38/20 M49X0.75 60 47 0,23
Helios-44-1 2/68 40 6/4 0,5 0,80 10-0-1,5 36/17 M49X0.5 62 59 0,35
Helios-44M 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,80 10-0-1,5 38/19 M52 × 0,75 65 44 0,3
Helios-44M-4 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,80 10-0-1,5 38/19 M52 × 0,75 65 42 0.3
MS "Helios-44M-4" 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,85 11-0-0 41/20 M52 × 0,75 65 42 0.3
MS "Helios-44M-5" 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,85 11-0-0 41/20 M52 × 0,75 65 39 0,27
MS "Helios-44M-6" 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,90 11-0-0 45/25 M52 × 0,75 65 39 0,27
MS "Helios-44M-7" 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,90 11-0-0 50/30 M52 × 0,75 65 39 0,27
Helios-40-2 1,5/85 28 6/4 0.8 0,75 10-0-4 36/17 M67 × 0,75 82 110 0,95
Vega-13A 2,8/100 24 5/5 1,0 0,81 11-0-1,5 47/27 M58 × 075 64 82 0,46
A pilot batch was released, not serially produced
Vega13M 2,8/100 24 5/5 1,0 0,81 11-0-1.5 47/27 M58x0,75 65 62 0.48
A pilot batch was released, not serially produced
Tair-11A 2,8/135 18 4/3 1,2 0,8 11-0-0 44/24 M55x0,75 68 110 0,6
MS "Telezenitar-M" 2.8/135 18 5/4 1,2 0.90 11-0-0 50/27 M55 × 0.75 67 86 0,47
A pilot batch was released, not serially produced
MS-APO "Telezenitar-M" 2.8/135 18 5/4 1,3 0.90 11-0-0 53/40 M58 × 0.75 66,5 88 0,47
Jupiter-6-2 2.8/180 14 5/3 2 0,80 11-0-2 35/21 M77 × 0,75 90 139 1.47
Jupiter-21A 4/200 12 4/3 1,7 0,84 11-0-1,5 50/36 M58x0,75 65 153 0,74
Jupiter-21M 4/200 12 4/3 1,8 0,84 11-0-1,5 50/36 M58x0,75 78 157 0,94
Telemar-22A 5,6/200 12 4/3 2,5 0,85 12-0-1 44/25 M49x0,75 67 129 0,5
Tair-ZS 4,5/300 8 3/3 3 0,80 10-0-0 36/30 M72x0,75 85 260 1,4
Produced for "FS-12" photogun
MS "Telezenitar-M" 4,5/300 8 6/4 4 0,90 13-0-0 40/30 M72x0,75 80 200 1.2
Development. not serially produced
  1. Lenses for SLR cameras such as Zenit-Avtomat, Zenit-14, Zenit-AM, 3enit-AM-2, Zenit-APK, APM, Almaz-103 bayonetohm type "K" and a flange distance of 45,5 mm
lens Rel. /

foresight. distance

Angle sp. Qty

lenses and comp.

Middle

NS. focusing

Set light Formula tsvetn. Resolution: Center / Edge Thread

under filters

Frame diameter Length Weight
MS "Zenitar-K" 3,5/16

"Fish eye"

180 10/6 0,3 0,88 12-0-1 60/23 M26.5 × 0,5 63 49 0,31
MS "MIR-64K" 2,8/20 94 10/9 0,25 0,90 55/25 M67 × 0.75 70 42,5 0,2
Development, preparing for production
MS "Mir-46K" 1,4/35 64 10/8 0,3 0.86 50/20 M58 × 0,75 67 74 0,45
Development. not serially produced
MS "Helios 77K-4" 1,8/52 44 6/4 0,45 0.88 11-0-0 45/25 M52 × 0,75 64 41 0,25
MS "Zenitar-K" 1.9/50 45 6/4 0,45 0,90 11-0-0 48/30 M52 × 0,75 64 39 0.25
Development, preparing for production
MS "Zenitar-K2" 1,4/50 46 7/6 0.35 0,86 13-0-0 50/30 M52 × 0,75 63 42.5 0,29
Development, preparing for production
MS "Helios 44K-4" 2/58 40 6/4 0,5 0,85 12-0-0 42/21 M52 × 0.75 64 42 0,3
MS "Zeyitar-K" 1,4/85 30 7/6 0.8 0,85 11-0-0 42/23 M72 × 0.75 79 68 0,65
Development, not serially produced
MS "Gelionar-1K" 1,4/85 28 7/6 0,9 0.85 11-0-0 50/30 M72 × 0.75 75 54 0,52
Development, preparing for production
MS "APO-Telezenitar-K" 4.5/300 8 6/4 3 0,87 13-0 - (- 1) 60/35 M67x0,75 80 149 0,99
Development, preparing for production
"K" Attachment Varifocal Lenses
MS "Varioseiitar-K" 2.8-3,5/25-45 82-52 10/10 0.8 0.84 13-0 - (- 1) 55/26 d60 61 65 0,43
MS "Variozenitar-K" 3,2-4,5/35-70 63-36 9/9 0,8 55/25 M58x0,75 62 74 0,375
Development, preparing for production
MS "Variozenitar-K" 3,5-4.5/35-105 63-28 13/12 1,5 55/25 d65 66 85 0,6
Development, preparing for production
MS "Variozenitar-K" 4/70-210 36-11 12/9 1,3 55/30 M58X0.75 72 148 0,64
Development, preparing for production

4. Lenses for SLR cameras such as "Zenit-4", "5", "6", produced with a central gateohm, connecting specialbayonetohm and flange distance 49,9 mm

lens Rel. /

foresight.

distance

Vision angle Of lenses

and comp.

Middle

Focus limit.

Set of light transmission Color formula Permission sp: center /

edge

Thread

under filters

Diam. rims Length Weight
Mir-1c 2.8/37 62 6/5 0,7 0,78 43/23 M49X0.5 58 59 0.27
Vega 3 2,8/52 45 5/4 1 0,85 45/25 M40.5X0.5 49.5 19 0,12
Jupiter-25ts 2,8/85 28 5/4 1,15 0.83 45/20 M49X0.5 61 66 0,325
Tair-38ts 4/135 18 5/4 1,5 0.81 45/30 M49X0.5 65 96 0,498
Rubin-1ts 2.8/37-80 60-30 4/11 1.3 0,70 30/14 M77X0.75 88,5 102 0,85

5. Objectives for rangefinder cameras of the "Zorky" type with a connecting thread M39 x 1 and a working distance of 28,8 mm

lens Rel. /

focal

distance

Angle

view

Qty

lenses

Middle

NS. focus.

K-t

light reflector

Formula tsvetn. Allowed sp .:

center / edge

Thread

under filters

Diameter

rims

Length Weight
Russar (MR-2) 5,6/20 95 6/4 0,5 0,70 35/20 M40.5X0.5 55 14,5 0,095
Orion-15 6/28 75 4/4 1 1.70 45/18 M40,5x0,5 51 21,2 0,08
Jupiter 12 2,8/35 62 6/4 1 0,75 34/12 M40.5X0.5 50 28 0,13
Industar-22 3.5/52 45 4/3 1 0.80 7-0-0 32/18 МЗЗх0.5 53 37.5 0,12
Industar-50 3,5/52 45 4/3 1 0,80 7-0-0 38/22 МЗЗх0.5 53 37,5 0,112
Jupiter 3 1,5/52 45 7/3 1 0,80 14-0-0 30/14 M40.5X0.5 48 41,5 0.16
Jupiter 8 2/52 45 6/3 1 0.81 9-0-1.5 30/14 M40,5x0,5 49 35,2 0,13
Jupiter 17 2/52 45 5/3 1 0,82 10-0-1 30/16 M40.5X0.5 49 35 0,14
Development, not serially produced
Mercury-1 2/52 45 7/5 1 0,81 40/18 M40.5X0.5 51 45 0,17
Development, not serially produced
Jupiter 9 2/85 28 7/3 1,15 0.80 30/18 M49X0.5 60 52 0,335
Jupiter 11 4/135 18 4/3 2,5 0.78 13-0-2 34/19 M40,5x0,5 48 98 0,36
Tair-11 4/133 18 4/3 1.5 0,80 11-0-3 28/18 M49x0,5 68 124 0,56
Development, not serially produced

6. Objectives rigidly built into cameras such as "Moscow", "Iskra", etc.

lens Rel. /

foresight. dist.

Vision angle Qty

lenses and comp.

Middle NS. focus. Set light Formula tsvetn. Permission

way .: center /

edge

 filters
Industar-23 4,5/110 52 4/3 1,5 0,78 28/14 d36 Installed on cameras "Moscow-1", "2", "З-" "4"
Industar-24 3.5/105 52 4/3 1,5 0,80 25/12 d40 Installed on the camera "Moscow-5"
Industar-58 3,5/75 52 4/3 1 0,80 33/10 МЗЗх0.5 Installed on cameras "Iskra", "Iskra-2"
Industar-77 4,8/120 53 4/3 1 0.80 12-0-1.5 M49 / 0.5 Development for the camera "Photon"
Industar-63 2,8/45 50 4/3 1,5 0,80 38/14 M52X0.75 Installed on cameras "Zorky-10", "11"
Helios-98 2,8/28 56 6/4 0.8 0.80 50/35 M40.5x0,5 Installed on the Zorkiy-12 camera
Industar-50 5/50 4/3 20 Installed on a panoramic camera "FT-2"
OF-28P 2,8/28 4/3 Installed on a panoramic camera "Horizon"
  1. Lenses for the Narcissus camera with a frame size of 14 × 21 mm, an M24 x 1 connection thread and a focal length of 28,8 mm
lens Rel. /

focal

dist.

Angle sp. Qty

lenses

and comp.

Middle

Etc.

focus.

K-t

light reflector

Formula

color

Allowed sp .:

center / edge

filters Diam.

rims

Length Weight
World 6 2,8/28 48 5/4 0,3 0,78 35/20 d36 46 29 0,11
Not serially produced
World 5 2/28 48 7/6 0,4 0,78 35/20 M40,5x0,5 52 48 0,18
Not serially produced
Industar-60 2,8/35 39 4/3 0,5 0,80 42/22 d27 38 18 0,04
Vega-1M 2,8/35 39 5/4 0,5 0,80 50/30 42 19,5 0,037

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Adapters for cameras and lenses

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