Foreign and Soviet lenses with photo examples

This page contains foreign and Soviet lenses with sample photos.

Lens - an optical system, which is a part of an optical device, facing the object of observation or shooting and forming its real or imaginary image. In optics, it is considered as equivalent to a converging lens, although it may have a different look, for example, "Camera obscura".Typically, a lens consists of a set of lenses (in some lenses - from mirrors), calculated for mutual compensation of aberrations and assembled into a single system inside the frame.

Foreign lenses

7ARTISANS

  1. 7Artisans (manufacturer)
  2. 7artisans 7.5mm f2.8 FishEye
  3. 7Artisans 12mm Ff / 2.8 WIDE
  4. 7Artisans 35mm f / 1.2
  5. 7Artisans 35mm f / 1.4
  6. 7Artisans 35mm f / 0.95
  7. 7artisans 55mm f / 1.4

CANON

  1. Canon (manufacturer)
  2. Canon EF 15mm f / 2.8
  3. Canon EF-S 10-18mm f4.5-5.6 IS STM
  4. Canon EF 16-35 f / 2.8 II L USM
  5. Canon EF 20-35 mm f / 3.5-4.5 USM
  6. Canon EF 24-105mm f / 3.5-5.6 IS STM
  7. Canon EF 28-105 mm f / 3.5-4.5 USM II
  8. Canon EF 35mm f1.4L USM
  9. Canon EF 40mm f / 2.8 STM
  10. Canon EF 50mm f / 1.4 USM
  11. Canon EF 50mm f / 1.8
  12. Canon EF 50mm f / 1.8 II
  13. Canon EF 50mm f / 1.8 STM
  14. Canon EF 60mm f / 2.8 macro USM
  15. Canon EF 85mm f / 1.2L II
  16. Canon EF 85mm f / 1.8 USM
  17. Canon EF 1200mm f / 5.6 L USM
  18. Canon EF 38-76mm f / 4.5-5.6
  19. Canon EF 75-300mm f / 4-5.6 III
  20. Canon EF 80-200mm f / 4.5-5.6
  21. Canon EF 24-70 f / 2.8 L USM
  22. Canon EF 28-80 f / 2.8-4 L USM
  23. Canon EF 24-105mm f / 4 L IS USM
  24. Canon EF 28-200 mm f / 3.5-5.6 USM
  25. Canon EF 50-200mm f / 3.5-4.5 L
  26. Canon EF 70-200mm f / 4L USM
  27. Canon EF 70-200mm f / 4L IS USM
  28. Canon 70-300 f / 4.5-5.6 DO IS usm
  29. Canon EF 70-300mm f / 4-5.6 IS USM
  30. Canon EF-s 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6 IS
  31. Canon EF-s 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6 IS II
  32. Canon EF-s 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6 III DC
  33. Canon EF-S 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6 IS STM
  34. Canon EF-s 18-135mm f / 3.5-5.6 IS
  35. Canon EF-M 32mm f / 1.4 STM
  36. Canon EF Extender 2x first
  37. Canon RF Serenar 85 mm f / 1.9 M39
  38. Canon RF 50mm f / 1.8 Serenar
  39. Canon RF 35mm f / 2 LTM M39
  40. Canon RF 50mm f / 1.8
  41. Canon FL 50mm f / 1.4
  42. Canon FL 50mm f / 1.4 ii
  43. Canon FL 50mm f / 1.8
  44. Canon FL 135mm f / 2.5
  45. Canon FL 135mm f / 3.5
  46. Canon FD 50mm f / 1.4 SSC
  47. Canon FD 50mm f / 1.8 SC
  48. Canon FD 50 mm f / 3.5 Macro
  49. Canon FD 2.8 / 100 SSC
  50. Canon FD 300mm f5.6 SC
  51. Canon FD 50mm f / 2.0
  52. Canon FD 50mm f1.2L
  53. Canon FD 85mm f / 1.2L
  54. Canon FD 28mm f / 2.8 SC
  55. Canon FD 200mm f / 2.8
  56. Canon FD 55 mm f1.2 SSC

CARL ZEISS

  1. Zeiss (manufacturer)
  2. Carl Zeiss Jena in 1960
  3. Carl Zeiss Jena Tessar lens series
  4. Flektogon 2.8 / 20
  5. Carl Zeiss Sonnar 40mm
  6. Carl Zeiss Jena Biotar 2/58, 1954
  7. Carl Zeiss Jena Biotar 1,5 / 75
  8. Carl Zeiss Jena Tessar 2.8 / 50 T
  9. Carl Zeiss Jena Tessar 2.8 / 50 Zebra
  10. Carl Zeiss Jena Pancolar 50mm f / 1.8 [MC]
  11. Zeiss Jena Pancolar 1,8/80
  12. Carl Zeiss Sonnar 2 / 50
  13. Carl Zeiss Jena Sonnar 1.5 / 50
  14. Carl Zeiss Sonnar 85 2.8
  15. Zeiss Touit 12 / 2.8
  16. Zeiss Otus 100mm F1.4 APO Sonnar
  17. Carl Zeiss Jena Sonnar 135mm f / 3.5
  18. Carl Zeiss Jena Flektogon 4 / 20mm (SF)
  19. Carl Zeiss Jena Flektogon 4 / 25mm (SF)
  20. Carl Zeiss Jena Flektogon 50mm f / 4 (SF)
  21. Carl Zeiss Biometar 80 / 2.8 MC (SF)
  22. Carl Zeiss Planar 80 / 2.8CB (SF)
  23. Jena Bm 2,8 / 120mm (Carl Zeiss Jena Biometar) (SF)
  24. Carl Zeiss Jena Biometar 120mm f / 2.8 (SF)
  25. Carl Zeiss Jena DDR Sonnar 135 mm f / 3.5
  26. Carl Zeiss Sonnar 150 / 4 (SF)
  27. Carl Zeiss Sonnar 180 4 CFi (SF)
  28. Carl Zeiss Jena MC Sonnar 180 mm f2.8 (SF)
  29. Carl Zeiss Jena Sonnar 180mm f 2.8 (SF)

ENNA MUNCHEN

  1. Enna munchen (manufacturer)
  2. Enna Munchen Tele-Ennalyt 4.5 / 240

HANIMEX

  1. Hanimex (reseller)
  2. Hanimex 28mm f / 2.8
  3. Hanimex Hanimar Auto "S" 135mm f / 2.8

ISCO.

  1. ISCO Westron 2.8 / 35 mm
  2. ISCO Westagon 2.8 / 50 mm
  3. ISCO Tele Westanar 3,5 / 135 mm

KOMURA

  1. Sankyo Kohki (producer)
  2. Sankyo Kohki W-Komura 35mm f / 2.5
  3. Sankyo Kohki Komura 105mm f / 2.8
  4. Sankyo Kohki Komuranon 135 mm f / 2.5
  5. Sankyo Kohki Komura 135mm f2.8
  6. Sankyo Kohki Komura 135 mm f / 3.5
  7. Sankyo Kohki Komura 200 mm f 3.5
  8. Sankyo Kohki Komura 200mm/f4.5

Kamlan

  1. KamLan (manufacturer)
  2. KamLan 7.5mm f / 3.2
  3. KamLan 8mm f / 3
  4. KamLan 12mm f / 2.8
  5. KamLan 15mm f / 2
  6. KamLan 21mm f / 1.8
  7. KamLan 28mm f / 1.4
  8. KamLan 32mm f / 1.1
  9. KamLan 50mm f / 1.1 G1
  10. KamLan 50mm f / 1.1 Mark II
  11. KamLan 55mm f / 1.2
  12. KamLan 85mm f / 1.4

KENKO

MINOLTA

  1. minolta(manufacturer)
  2. Minolta MC Rokkor-PF 50mm f / 1.7
  3. Minolta MC Rokkor-PF 55mm f / 1.7
  4. Minolta Auto Rokkor-PF 55mm f / 1.8
  5. Minolta MC Rokkor-PF 58mm f / 1.4

MAMIYA

Meopta

MEIKE

  1. Meike (Meke) (manufacturer)
  2. Meike 3.5mm f / 2.8 Circular Fisheye
  3. Meike 6-11mm f / 3.5 Fisheye
  4. Meike 6.5mm f / 2 Circular Fisheye
  5. Meike 8mm f / 3.5 Fisheye
  6. Meike 12mm f / 2.8
  7. Meike 25mm f / 2
  8. Meike 25mm f / 1.8
  9. Meike 28mm f / 2.8
  10. Meike 35mm f / 1.7
  11. Meike 35mm f / 1.4
  12. Meike 50mm f / 1.7
  13. Meike 50mm f / 1.2
  14. Meike 50mm f / 2
  15. Meike 85mm f / 2.8 Macro
  16. Meike 85mm f / 1.8

MEYER OPTIK

  1. Meyer-Optik (manufacturer)
  2. Meyer-Optik Telemegor lens series
  3. Meyer Görlitz Orestegon 2,8/29
  4. Meyer Gorlitz Domiron 2/50
  5. Meyer Görlitz Oreston 1.8/50
  6. Meyer Görlitz Domiplan 2.8/50
  7. Meyer Görlitz Trioplan 2,9 / 50
  8. Meyer Görlitz Trioplan 2.8 / 100
  9. Meyer Görlitz Primoplan 1,9 / 58
  10. Meyer Görlitz Biotar 58 f/1.5 II
  11. Meyer Görlitz Biotar 75 f/1.5 II
  12. Meyer Görlitz Primoplan 1.9/75 II
  13. Meyer Görlitz Telefogar 3.5 / 90
  14. Meyer Görlitz Orestor 100mm f/2.8
  15. Meyer Görlitz Orestor 3.5/135
  16. Meyer Görlitz Telemegor 5.5/180
  17. Meyer Görlitz Telemegor 5.5/400
  18. Meyer Görlitz Makro Plasmat 2.7/105

NEWER

  1. Neewer (manufacturer)
  2. Neewer 8mm f / 3.5
  3. Neewer 28mm f / 2.8
  4. Neewer 32mm f / 1.6
  5. Neewer 35mm f / 1.7
  6. Neewer 35mm f / 1.2
  7. Neewer 85mm f / 1.8

NIKON

  1. Nikon (manufacturer)
  2. Nikon 28mm f / 2.8 AI-S
  3. Nikon Nikkor 35 mm f / 2.8 Ai
  4. Nikon Nikkor DX 35mm f1.8
  5. Nikkor 50 1.4
  6. Nikkor 50 1.8D
  7. Nikon Nikkor-S 5.8 cm f / 1.4 non-Ai Nikon S
  8. Nikon Nikkor 50mm f / 2 Nikon S
  9. Nikon Nikkor-HC 50mm f2.0 Nikon F
  10. Nikon series E 50 1.8
  11. Nikon Nikkor 135mm f3.5 Ai Nikon F
  12. Nikon Nikkor-PC 180 mm f / 2.8 Nikon F
  13. Nikon Micro Nikkor 200 mm f / 4 IF Ai Nikon F
  14. Nikon Nikkor 300 mm f / 4.5 Ai Nikon F
  15. AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6G VR
  16. Nikon 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6G ED II AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor
  17. Nikon DX 18-135mm f / 3.5-5.6G ED AF-S Nikon F
  18. Nikon Nikkor 28-45mm f / 4.5 Nikon F
  19. Nikon Nikkor 35-70 mm f / 3.3-4.5 Ai-S
  20. Nikon 24-120mm f / 4G ED VR AF-S Nikkor
  21. Nikon Nikkor 80-200 mm f / 4.5 Ai New Nikon F

OLYMPUS

  1. Olympus (manufacturer)
  2. Olympus 45mm f / 1.8
  3. Olympus-Om Zuiko 50mm
  4. Olympus OM-System Zuiko MC AUTO-S 50mm f1.4
  5. Olympus OM-SYSTEM E.ZUIKO AUTO-T 1: 2.8 f = 100 mm
  6. Olympus OM-System E.Zuiko Auto-T 200 mm f / 4.0
  7. M.Zuiko Digital ED 12‑40mm F2.8 PRO
  8. Olympus OM Syst S Zuiko 35-70mm f4

PENTAX

  1. Pentax (manufacturer)
  2. Pentax SMC 18-55mm f / 3.5-5.6 AL
  3. Pentax SMC 50-200mm f / 4-5.6 ED
  4. Auto-Takumar 55 mm f / 2.0
  5. SMC Pentax Soft 85mm f / 2.2
  6. Super Takumar 2.8 / 105 and Auto Takumar 2.8 / 105
  7. Takumar 135mm f / 3.5
  8. SMC Takumar 135 / 2.5
  9. Asahi Takumar 200mm f / 3.5
  10. Asahi Pentax Super Takumar 200mm f / 4.0

PANASONIC

SIGMA

  1. Sigma (manufacturer)
  2. Sigma AF 24mm f / 1.4 DG HSM
  3. Sigma 30mm f / 1.4 EX DC HSM
  4. Sigma 50mm f1.4
  5. Sigma EX 30 / 2.8
  6. Sigma A 30 / 2.8
  7. Sigma C 56 / 1.4
  8. Sigma A 60 / 2.8
  9. Sigma AF 180 mm f / 2.8 APO Macro
  10. Sigma 10-20mm f / 4-5.6 EX DC HSM
  11. Sigma 17-50mm f / 2.8 AF EX DC OS HSM
  12. Sigma-XQ 39-80mm f / 3.5
  13. Sigma AF 24-135 mm f / 2.8-4.5 Aspherical IF
  14. Sigma AF 28-105 mm f / 3.8-5.6 UC-III Aspherical IF
  15. Sigma AF 70-210 mm f / 2.8 Zoom APO (I)

SONY

  1. Sony (manufacturer)
  2. Sony A 70-200mm F2.8G
  3. Sony E 16 2.8
  4. Sony E 24mm f/1.8 ZEISS ZA
  5. Sony E 30mm f/3.5 Macro
  6. Sony E 35mm f/1.8 OSS
  7. Sony E 50mm f/1.8 OSS
  8. Sony E 16-50mm f / 3.5-5.6 OSS PZ
  9. Sony E 16-55mm f / 2.8 G
  10. Sony E 16-70mm f/4 OSS ZEISS ZA
  11. Sony E 18-55 f/3.5-5.6 (SEL1855)
  12. Sony FE 35mm F1.4G
  13. Sony FE 35 1.8
  14. Sony FE 50mm F / 1.4 ZA
  15. Sony FE 55mm F / 1.8 ZA
  16. Sony FE 50mm F / 1.8
  17. Sony FE 50mm f / 2.8 Macro
  18. Sony FE 85 1.8
  19. Sony FE 12-24mm F / 4 G
  20. Sony FE 16-35mm F / 2.8 GM
  21. Sony FE 16-35mm F / 4 ZA OSS
  22. Sony FE 28-60mm F4-5.6
  23. Sony FE 28-70 3.5-5.6

Stone Cave

  1. Steinheil MACRO QUINARON 2.8 / 35 mm
  2. Steinheil Cassar 4.5 / 105

SCHNEIDER-KREUZNACH

  1. Schneider-Kreuznach (manufacturer)
  2. Schneider Kreuznach Xenar F = 10,5 cm
  3. Schneider Symmar-S 5.6 / 240

Samyang

Tamron

  1. Tamron (manufacturer)
  2. Tamron-F BBAR MC 135mm f2.8
  3. Tamron SP AF 17-50mm f / 2.8
  4. Cosina (Tamron) AF 19-35 f / 3.5-4.5 MC
  5. Tamron AF 18-270mm f3.5-6.3 Di II VC PZD
  6. Tamron SP AF 70-210 mm f / 2.8 LD 67D
  7. Tamron 70-200 f / 2.8 SP AF
  8. Tamron 70-300mm f / 4-5.6 AF DI LD Macro
  9. Tamron AF 200-400mm f / 5.6 LD
  10. Tamron 150-600mm f / 5.0-6.3 SP Di VC USD

TOKINA

  1. tokina (manufacturer)
  2. Tokina AF AT-X PRO 100 mm f / 2.8 D Macro M100
  3. Tokina TM500 f / 8.0
  4. Tokina AT-X 16-28mm f / 2.8 Pro FX

TTArtisan

  1. TTArtisan 23mm F1.4
  2. TTArtisan 50mm f/0.95

VOIGTLANDER

  1. Voigtlander (manufacturer)
  2. Voigtländer Nokton 1.1 / 50
  3. Voigtlander Color-Heliar 2.5 / 75 SL

Yongnuo

  1. Yongnuo (manufacturer)
  2. Yongnuo YN 14mm f / 2.8
  3. Yongnuo YN 35mm f / 1.4
  4. Yongnuo YN 35mm f / 2.0
  5. Yongnuo YN 40mm f / 2.8
  6. Yongnuo YN 42.5mm f / 1.7
  7. Yongnuo YN 50mm f / 1.8
  8. Yongnuo YN 50mm f / 1.8 II
  9. Yongnuo YN 50mm f / 1.4
  10. Yongnuo YN 60mm f / 2 MF MACRO
  11. Yongnuo YN 85mm f / 1.8
  12. Yongnuo YN 100mm f / 2.0

SOVIET LENSES

Soviet lenses for cameras with interchangeable lenses are a phenomenon of the modern photography market. On the trading floors they are represented by the wildest abundance. Considering that most of them are made for SLR cameras with M42 thread, and the combination of their qualities in relation to prices, makes them a good option for every day.

Series of Soviet lenses

By model

AVIAR

VOLNA

  1. Series of lenses "Volna"
  2. MC Volna-9 2.8 / 50 macro
  3. MC Volna-3 2.8 / 80 (SF)
  4. Volna-3 2.8 / 80 (SF)

VEGA

  1. Lenses series "Vega"
  2. Vega M-1 2.8 / 35
  3. Vega-3 2.8 / 50
  4. Vega-9 2.1 / 50
  5. Vega 7-1 2/20
  6. Vega-5U 4/105 (IN)
  7. Vega-22UTs 5.6 / 103 (IN)
  8. Vega-12B 2.8 / 90 (SF)
  9. Vega-28V MS 2.8 / 120 (SF)

HELIOS (planar)

  1. Helios 44 58/2 lens series
  2. History. Lenses series "Helios"
  3. Helios 44 2/58 "Start" bayonet
  4. Helios 44-2 2/58
  5. Helios-44-3 2/58 MS
  6. Helios-44-7 2/58
  7. Helios-44M 2/58
  8. Helios-44M1 2/58 "Cat's Eye".
  9. Helios 44M-4 2/58
  10. Helios-44M-4 2/58 MS
  11. Helios 44M-5 2/58 MC
  12. Helios-44M-6 2/58 MS
  13. Helios 44M-7 2/58
  14. Helios-81-automatic 2/50
  15. Helios-81N 2/50 MC
  16. Helios-81M 2/53
  17. Arsat-H
  18. Helios-77M-4 1,8/50
  19. Helios-103 1.8/53
  20. Helios on Nikon
  21. Helios on Canon

GRANIT lenses

  1. Granite-11 4.5 / 80-200

ZENITAR

  1. Series of lenses "Zenitar"
  2. Zenitar-M 2.8 / 16
  3. Zenitar-M 1.7 / 50
  4. Zenith Selena 1.9 / 58
  5. Zenitar 2/50 (M2, M2S, K, K2)
  6. Zenitar 2 / 35 for Sony E
  7. Zenitar 1.5 / 50 for Sony E
  8. Zenitar 0.95 / 50 for Sony E
  9. MS APO Telezenitar-M 2.8 / 135
  10. Russar 5,6/20
  11. SELENIUM 2,2/85
  12. ZENITAR 1,4/75
  13. ZENITAR 2,8/21 Leica M
  14. ZENITAR 1/50 Leica M
  15. Zenitar 2 / 35
  16. Helios 40-2 1.5/50
  17. Zenitar 1.2 / 50s
  18. Zenitar 3.5 / 8
  19. Zenitar 1.4 / 85
  20. Zenitar 2.8 / 60
  21. Zenitar 1 / 35

ZM (Mirror Maksutova)

  1. Series of lenses "ZM"
  2. ZM-5A 8/500 MC

INDUSTAR (tessar)

  1. Series of lenses "Industar"
  2. Industar-10 (Leitz Elmar) 3.5 / 50
  3. Industar-22 1:3.5 F=50mm P non-folding
  4. Industar-22 1:3.5 F=5cm P folding
  5. Industar-26M 1:2.8 F=5cm P
  6. I-26M (Industar-26M) 2.8/50
  7. Industar-50 3.5 / 50
  8. Industar 50-2 3.5 / 50
  9. Industar-61 2.8/50 L/Z [MS] 
  10. Industar-61 (I-61) 2.8 / 52 
  11. Industar-61 (I-61) 2.8 / 53 L / D
  12. Industar-69 2.8 / 28
  13. Industar-96U 3.5 / 50
  14. Industar-104U 2.8 / 27
  15. Industar-23 4.5 / 110 (BF)
  16. Industar-51 (I-51) F = 21cm 1: 4,5 (BF)
  17. Industar-37 4.5 / 300 (BF)

KALEYNAR

  1. Kaleinar-3B 2.8 / 150 (SF)
  2. Kaleinar-5N 2.8 / 100

MTO (Maksutova Telephoto lens)

  1. Series of lenses "MTO"
  2. MTOM 8/500 M39 (mirrored)
  3. MTO-500 8/500
  4. MTO-1000A 10.5 / 1100

WORLD

  1. Series of lenses "Mir"
  2. Mir-1V 2.8 / 37
  3. Mir-10A 3.5 / 28
  4. Mir-11M 2 / 12
  5. Mir-20M 3.5 / 20
  6. Mir-24N 2/35

LOMO

Triplet

Teleconverter

Tourist-FL

RUSSAR

TAIR (Volosov)

  1. Series of lenses "Tair"
  2. Tair-3FS 4.5/300 (FS-3)
  3. Tair-3S 4.5/300 (FS-12)
  4. Tair-3 4.5/300
  5. Tair-41M 2/50

Photosniper

  1. Set Photo sniper FS-3
  2. Set Photo sniper FS-12

FED

  1. FED (factory)
  2. FED 1: 2 F = 50mm (Leitz Summar)
  3. FED 3.5/50 (Leitz Elmar)
  4. FED Industar-26M 1:2.8 F=5cm P
  5. FED I-26M 2.8/50
  6. FED I-61 2.8 / 52 (Industar-61)
  7. FED I-61 2.8 / 53 L / D (Industar-61)

ERA

  1. Era-6 1.5 / 50 (leitz summilux)

JUPITER (sonnar)

  1. Jupiter lens series
  2. Jupiter-3 1.5/50
  3. Jupiter-6 2.8/180
  4. Jupiter-8 1: 2 F = 5cm P
  5. Jupiter-8 2/50
  6. Jupiter-8M 1: 2 F = 5cm P
  7. Jupiter-9 2/85 brass
  8. Jupiter-9 2/85 black
  9. Jupiter-9 2/85 white
  10. Jupiter-11 4/135
  11. Jupiter-11A 4 / 135
  12. Jupiter-12 2.8/35
  13. Jupiter-21M 4/200
  14. Jupiter-37A 3.5 / 135
  15. Jupiter-37AM 3.5 / 135 MC
  16. Jupiter-36B 3.5 / 250

By manufacturer

MMP (BELOMO)

KMZ

LOMO (VOOMP, GOMZ)

AOMZ

Azov Optical and Mechanical Plant

FOZ

Feodosia Optical Plant

Arsenal

VOMZ

FED

Plant "Jupiter"

LZOS

KOMZ

ZOMZ

Zagorsk Optical and Mechanical Plant

OTHER

Disassembly and Maintenance Articles

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Photography Courses:

Lenses by type

According to the field of application, the lenses are divided into

  • photographic,
  • filming,
  • aerial photography,
  • television,
  • reproductive,
  • projection,
  • fluorographic,
  • astrophotography,
  • infrared
  • ultraviolet.

In observational optical devices (rangefinder, binoculars, microscope) the first component of the device that creates an image viewed through the eyepiece is called an objective (sometimes very conditionally). In this case, the lens can also be a scattering lens (this is how the viewfinders of many rangefinder and scale cameras are built), and the image formed by it can be imaginary.

Depending on the purpose and device, in the design lens auxiliary elements can be included: diaphragm, for controlling the amount of transmitted light, focusing system, aperture gate, internal and built-in hoods, light filters, optical stabilization systems, adaptive and active optics.

Lens specifications

  • Frame size and crop factor: small format (modern name - "full frame", "Full frame"), half format (modern counterparts are called "APS lenses"), medium format, large format with a frame size of 9 × 12 cm and large, miniature (most common cameras), etc.
  • Focal length - the distance from its optical center to the focus through which the Focal plane passes, in which the plane of the sensor (film) lies, provided that the lens is pointed at infinity. Measured in millimeters;
  • The zoom ratio of a lens with a variable focal length is the ratio of the maximum focal length to the minimum. The focal length range itself is often indicated;
  • Corner field lens closely related to its focal length and frame size. Sometimes lenses are used on cameras with a smaller frame size than they were originally designed for, and, accordingly, their angular field will be smaller, depending on the sensor of the receiver. For each specific frame size, there is a series that unambiguously connects the angular field of the lens with its focal length;
  • Aperture ratio;
  • Maximum relative hole (sometimes incorrectly called aperture ratio);
  • The level and nature of optical distortions (aberrations);
  • Resolution;
  • A type bayonet or the diameter of the thread for attaching to the camera - for interchangeable photographic or cinematographic lenses;
  • Anamorphic coefficient (anamorphosis) - for anamorphic lenses;
  • Flange or working distance - for interchangeable lenses. Distance between the reference plane of the attachment mount and the focal plane lens... In most cases, it is determined by the type of bayonet, it is important for threaded mount types (for example, lenses with a M39 × 1 connecting thread were also produced for a 28,8 mm focal length for rangefinder cameras "Leica", "FED", "Sharp", and under working distance 45,2 mm for Zenith SLR cameras).
  • Minimum relative aperture (maximum aperture number, for example, 16 or 22) - is determined by the design features of the diaphragm.
  • Minimum focusing distance (MDF), or maximum macro zoom for macro lenses (for example, 55 mm, 1: 1) - is determined by the focal length and frame design.
  • Diameter and pitch of the thread for connecting the light filters.
  • MTF (Modulation Transfer Function - Refines Resolution) plots.
  • Optical design lens... More lenses allow designers to design a lens with better aberration corrected, but reduces light transmission and increases the risk of spurious reflections that reduce image contrast. In addition, the greater the number of surfaces that need to be polished, increases the cost of production and increases the requirements for the accuracy of manufacturing each part. That is why such simple optical schemes as Tessar are still successfully used and will be applied.
  • The presence of aspherical lenses.
  • The presence of lenses made of special types of glass (low dispersion, high refractive index).
  • A kind of enlightenment.
  • Frame design and features and bayonet... For example, a "pump-action" frame (from the resemblance to a pump-action shotgun. Another name is "trombone") - changing the focal length and focusing on focus is carried out with one ring, the axial movement of which changes focal length, and by turning, focusing is carried out. It is more traditional to have two different controls.

Soviet and foreign lenses with examples of photographs

Classification of lenses for shooting

  • Standard lens - the main (most frequently used) lens of a particular photographer on a particular camera. Any normal lens is often called a standard lens.
  • Kit lens (from the English kit - kit) - slang word - interchangeable lens, which comes with the camera at the time of sale. Often this refers to a specific entry-level zoom lens that comes with budget cameras (EF-S 18-55mm f / 3,5-5,6 for Canon, AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-55 mm f / 3,5-5,6 VA for Nikon, 18-55 mm f / 3,5-5,6 Sony, DA 18-55 mm f / 3,5-5,6 AL from Pentax, etc.)
  • Standard - quite often used in completely different senses: regular, normal, complete (whale).

Types of lenses

By design (optical scheme)

Creating distortion-free lenses has long been an art rather than a science. Particularly successful lens arrangements have remained in the history of technology under their own names:

  • Monocle - the simplest lens, consisting of one collecting lens.
  • Periscope - symmetrical lens, consisting of two collecting lenses.
  • Triplet Cook - the most common variant of the triplet, the simplest anastigmat, consisting of three non-glued lenses, two collecting and one scattering between them.
  • Retrofocus lens - a class of lenses that differ in that their rear section is longer than the focal length. This allows the design of a short throw lens with an extended rear section. Gained popularity due to the proliferation of single-lens reflex cameras.
  • Telephoto lens - a class of long-focus lenses, in which the distance from the front optical surface to the rear focal plane is less than the focal length. Mirror lens - a class of lenses that, in addition to lenses, contain mirrors. As a rule, long-focus and ultra-long-focus lenses are made according to this scheme to reduce their overall dimensions. The fastest lenses are another area of ​​catadioptric lenses. Mirror lens with multiple light reflection "Origami" for ultra-compact equipment is announced.
  • Mirror lens contains only mirrors in the structure. Mirrors do not exhibit dispersion; therefore, such optical schemes are found in astronomy and in many technical fields, for example, in nanolithography.

By the type of applied optical (aberration) correction

  • Achromat - lens with corrected chromatic aberration. In achromat chromatism is corrected for rays of two wavelengths, rays of other colors converge near the main focus, and form the so-called. secondary spectrum, or high order chromatism.
  • Aplanat - lens with corrected spherical, chromatic, and coma aberration. Initially, this was the name of a lens with such properties, consisting of two symmetrical achromatic lenses.
  • Anastigmat - a lens for which, in addition to aplanatic correction, astigmatism and field curvature are additionally corrected. In the anastigmata, all six main aberrations are corrected to one degree or another. Almost all modern photographic, cinematographic and television lenses are anastigmata.
  • Apochromat - a lens, the chromatic aberration of which is better corrected than that of an achromat. In contrast to it, in the apochromat the chromatism of position is corrected for rays of three wavelengths, i.e. Image quality is significantly improved, especially for telephoto lenses (green and purple borders are reduced).
  • Semi-apochromat - achromat, the chromatism of which is corrected for beams of two wavelengths, but at the same time the secondary spectrum is greatly reduced in comparison with the usual achromat.
  • Superpochromat (Superachromat) - lens with chromaticity corrected for four wavelengths.

The following terms are also used for microscope objectives:

  • Planachromat
  • Planapochromat
  • Stigmachromats
  • Microfluares - lenses in which aberrations for one of the three wavelengths are corrected within 0,25 λ

By focal length range

  • Fix - any lens with a fixed focal length, slang word, abbreviation used to contrast variolensm. In cinematic use, such lenses are called discrete.
  • Varifocal lens, zoom - lens with variable focal length (zoom lens).

By focusing method

  • Autofocus - a lens equipped with an autofocus actuator and an appropriate interface for connecting to the camera.
  • Manual - a lens requiring manual focusing by an appropriate mechanism.
  • Fix focus - a lens focused at a specific distance (most often at hyperfocal distance or "infinity") and fixed at the factory in this position until the end of operation.

By angular field (focal length)

The classification of photographic lenses is widely used by the angular field, by the equivalent focal length (the value that the lens will have if, while maintaining its angle of view, its matrix is ​​scaled to a frame size of 24 × 36 mm), or by the focal length referred to the frame size. This characteristic largely determines the scope of application lens:

  • Normal lens - a lens with focal length approximately equal to the diagonal of the frame. The normal lens is positioned between the wide angle lens and the portrait lens. For 35 mm film, the frame diagonal is 43 mm, and a lens with a focal length of 35-70 mm is considered normal, while the most popular value, which eventually became the standard, is 50 mm. Corner field of normal lens lies in the range from 45 ° to 60 ° [6]. It is believed that the perception of the perspective of a picture taken with a normal lens is closest to the normal perception of the perspective of the surrounding world by a person. [7] [8]
  • "Fish eye", "Fisheye" - a lens with an angular field of 180 ° or more. It is characterized by a strongly pronounced distortion inherent in it, without which such viewing angles cannot be realized. A distinction is made between "circular fisheye" - with an image in the form of a circle, with a diameter equal to the height of the frame, or less, and "diagonal fisheye" - with a normal full-frame image, and a diagonal field of view of 180 °.
  • Ultra wide angle lens - a lens with an angular field of 83 ° or more, and focal length smaller than the small side of the frame. Ultra-wide-angle lenses have exaggerated perspective and are often used to add expressiveness to images.
  • Wide angle lens (blue short throw lens) - a lens with an angular field from 63 ° to 82 ° inclusive, focal length which is smaller than the wide side of the frame. Often used for shooting in confined spaces such as interiors.
  • Portrait lens - lens, focal length which occupies an intermediate position between normal and telephoto. Standard specs are 85mm at 1 / 2,0 aperture (ranges from 1 / 2,8 to 1 / 1,2). At a shorter focal length, lenses produce angular distortions that change the proportions of the face. At the same time, with an increase in the focal length, in addition to a favorable reduction in angle distortion, it becomes possible, for a good blurring of the background, at a lower aperture ratio. lens, therefore, the border between portrait and telephoto lenses is conditional. Usually a range of 2-4 diagonal of the frame is meant, that is, a lens with a focal length of 85-150 mm and an angular field of 16 ° -28 °. For portrait lens, in addition to technical parameters, the nature of the optical pattern is important and hips.
  • Long focus lens (telefoto) - a lens with focal length exceeds the frame diagonal by 2-3 and up to seven times. Has an angular field from 10 ° to 39 ° (focal lengths 85-300 mm), and is designed for shooting distant objects.
  • Super telephoto lens - a lens, the angular field of which is less than 9 ° (focal lengths more than 300 mm).
    At present, a type of variable focal length lens called a zoom lens (zoom, "zoom") is widely used.