Excerpt is - parameter that determines how long the camera shutter will be open to illuminate the matrix or camera film.

General information

The faster the shutter speed, the faster the shutter is released, and the less overexposure matrix cameras. The shutter speed is included in the exposure triangle, and together with the aperture and photosensitivity, it forms a common network of parameters. In particular, the exposure metered the amount of incoming light. The classic camera shutter closes the film or the camera matrix during idle time, protecting it from light exposure.

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Modern cameras have a number of possible shutter speeds, and this varies from camera model. Most common range of work shutter and, accordingly, a set of shutter speeds is 30 seconds - 1/8000 of a second. The step of change is from a stop (or a step, when the value doubles) to 1/2 and 1/3 of a stop. A typical example of a camera with one stop shutter speed is any Zenith.

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Shutter speed is measured in fractions of a second, seconds, minutes, hours. For example, the value "1/8000 sec." will read as "one eight-thousandth of a second." "Fraction of a second" here is so, for understanding. It is not necessary to say it out loud.

Long exposures usually have a second sign next to the digit - as an example, 1 ″. The minute will be displayed with the minute sign - 1 ′, on cameras usually the case is limited to thirty seconds and then the shutter operation parameter “by hand” goes (see below).

Setting the shutter speed

The shutter speed in the camera is usually adjusted by the selector on the camera body, or through the menu. At the same time, even the instruction for the camera cannot give specific advice on using the shutter speed - the shutter speed is selected for specific shooting conditions.

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In digital cameras, there are several modes and possibilities for controlling the shutter speed parameter:

  • Manual shooting mode. This is a mode in which you have every right to change all available exposure parameters based on the situation and your experience / skill. In this mode, the camera can only suggest the optimal parameter.
  • Shutter priority mode, in which you choose the shutter speed, and the rest of the parameters in the program are adjusted by the camera, based on the lighting conditions.
  • Exposure bracketing. Indirectly refers to the control of the gate, depends on the implementation of the function bracketingbut in the cell. In this mode, the camera will take three pictures - darker, normal, lighter. In some models of cameras to shift the exposure, aperture adjustment with the sensor's light sensitivity can also be used.
  • The shutter speed can be changed by making adjustments to the camera parameters (exposure compensation) in aperture priority modes, software semiautomatic.
  • Manual shutter mode. In this mode, you can control the shutter speed yourself. Pressing the shutter button opens the shutter, and releasing it closes the shutter.

The mode of operation of the camera is selected by a dial on the body.

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Sync speed

This feature can be used in low light conditions. The sync speed when working with electronic flashes allows you to illuminate objects using the open position of the shutter (one curtain has already left, and the second is just starting to move). In anticipation of this moment, a signal is given to the flash, and it emits a pulse.

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In the era of curtain shutters, the sync speed was generally up to 1 / 60th of a second, which was not always acceptable. In this case, the sync speed on the shutter dial was marked as X, or as the X-value of the shutter speed (for example, X-60). Over time, both flash designs and shutter designs have improved. On the Canon EOS 60D DSLR, the built-in flash sync speed is up to 1/250 second, and with an external electronic flash in high-speed sync mode, the entire shutter range (up to 1/8000 second) is covered. Notably, high-speed sync can be used when shooting in backlit conditions to bring out the shadows of the subject:

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Application of excerpt

Exposure is used in different conditions. A fast shutter speed is used when shooting moving objects (birds in flight, a running person, a passing car), and in excessive lighting (sunny day). A slow shutter speed is used in low light conditions to “collect more light”. Without a long exposure, for example, you will not be able to take a photo of the starry sky. Long exposure is used in the technique of painting with light, freezlite:

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When shooting with a high-aperture lens on a sunny day, we need a very high speed. shutterso as not to overexpose the frame. In the dark, we will have to use values ​​longer than 1/15 of a second - 1, 2, 4, 8 seconds, and so on. An example of using long exposure:

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When using shutter speeds slower than 1 / (one divided by) by focal length lens, you should use additional means of stabilization, such as: a tripod, mirror pre-lift, release cable. The built-in stabilizer (if any) will be able to compensate only for small tremors from the hands, and even then, up to a certain threshold.

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Shutter speed scale

(from Latin scala - ladder)
a device used to indicate the set speed of action of photographic gateov. The scale contains alphabetic and numeric designations, the letter “B” (Bulb) means “hand-held” shutter speed, all numbers up to the “B” index mean exposures in seconds, followed by fractions of a second.

bulb (B)

Freehand shutter mode

Time Value (TV)

Shutter priority mode of the camera. The user sets the required shutter speed, the electronics builds the exposure based on the shutter speed value.

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Conclusion

Exposure is an important parameter in photography. Be aware of what this setting affects, especially when shooting in low light. Longer shutter speeds require more experience with the camera, as well as the use of additional stabilizers, or flash. Use a fast shutter speed for moving subjects in good lighting conditions.

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