Exakta (German Exakta or Exacta in export version) is the name of single-lens reflex cameras produced by the German company Ihagee since 1933. At the time of the start of production, Ekzakta cameras were the basis of one of the most advanced photographic systems in the world. In the 1970s, the family was replaced by the more modern Praktica cameras.
The most important achievements first seen in the Exact chambers are:
- 1933 - the first single-lens reflex camera for roller film type-127;
- 1934 - Cocking trigger used for the first time shutter and transferring the film to the next frame;
- 1935 - the first built-in sync contact;
- 1936 - the first serial small-format single-lens reflex camera;
In 1930, Karl Nüchterlein (German Karl Nüchterlein) developed a VP Exakta camera for Ihagee for film type 127 (frame size 4 × 6,5 cm). The letters VP (Vest Pocket) in the name reflected the pocket size of the camera, emphasizing its compactness. Nüchterlein later developed a 35mm film version, which became popular with photo reporters thanks to the rangefinder Leikas. The new Kine Exakta camera reflected the type of photographic material used in the name. Later, when the industry began to produce specially cut film rolls for cameras, the name of the type-135 photographic film appeared, but until the 1950s such cameras were called "cinematographic". Production of the Kine Exakta began in 1936 and continued until the outbreak of World War II. In 1938, production of the Exakta began with a frame size of 6 × 6 cm.
After the war, production of the Exakta resumed in the Soviet occupation zone in Dresden. In 1946-1949, Kine Exakta II cameras were produced, which practically did not differ from the pre-war model. Exakta flourished in the 1950s: the Exakta Varex cameras were launched, in which pentaprism appeared for the first time, which could be replaced by a traditional mine. Interchangeable lenses and accessories for Exakta began to be produced, for example, the Varilux exposure meter, which made it possible to produce exposure metering by the light that passed through the lens, became a prototype TTL-exposure meter. Wide-angle lenses were developed and launched into a series, the first of which was the Zeiss Tessar 4,5 / 40. Optics for "Exakte" were produced by many well-known manufacturers: Carl Zeiss, Hugo Meyer, Schneider, Steinheil, Pierre Agnier. Ekzakta became the best mirror system of its time.
- 1951 saw the start of production of the Exa, a simplified, cheaper and lighter version of the Exakta.
- In 1953, production of the Exakta 66 resumed with a 6x6 cm frame format. The film was moved vertically in a replaceable backdrop.
- The last models based on the 1936 Kine-Exakta were the Exakta VX 1000 and VX 500. Following Ihagee's entry into Pentacon, the Exakta RTL 1000 was developed based on the Praktica L family of cameras.
- In the 1960s, the West German company Ihagee West also produced cameras under the brand name Exakta. The first was Exakta Real. Later, production was transferred to the Japanese companies Petri Camera and Cosina.
Various equipment was produced for Exakta: microscope attachments, various viewfinders, stereo attachments, attachments for medical applications (endoscopy), fur for macro photography, etc. The equipment is compatible with all Exakta models produced from 1936 to 1969.
- In 1984, Ihagee West introduced the Exakta 66 based on the Pentacon Six.
- In the 2000s, the Exakta brand was used by Pentacon GmbH for the production of compact digital and film cameras.
35mm cameras Exakta
Made in Dresden
- Camera "Exakta RTL 1000"
"Exakta EDX-3" camera made in Japan
- Kine Exakta - first presented at the Leipzig Fair in the spring of 1936. Fastening lens bayonet (Exakta bayonet). Mirror "sticky", lowering when cocked shutter and rising when descending. Focal-plane shutter, focal-plane shutter, with horizontal movement of cloth curtains, shutter speeds: 1/1000, 1/500, 1/250, 1/150, 1/100, 1/50, 1/25 s, as well as additional: 1 / 5, 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12 s and by hand B.
- Exact II
- Exakta V or Varex (1950)
- Exakta VX or Varex VX (1951-1956)
- Exakta VX IIa or Varex IIa - start of production 1957.
- Exakta VX IIb or Varex IIb - production started in 1960. Self-timer with 8 sec delay. Bayonet mount lens... Interchangeable viewfinders.
- Exakta VX 1000 - start of production 1966. Shutter speeds from 12 sec. To 1/1000 sec. TTL- exposure meter on a cadmium sulfide photoresistor.
- Exakta VX 500 - production start 1969. It differed from the VX 1000 version by a reduced shutter speed range - up to 1/500 s.
- Exakta RTL 1000 is a standard Meyer Optik 50 mm 1: 1,8 lens. Bayonet mount lens... Focal-plane shutter with metal slats. Shutter speeds from 8 s to 1/1000 s. Interchangeable viewfinders: pentaprism, focusing screen, central microprism. Light meter based on cadmium sulfide photoresistor. Mercury cell powered.
- Exakta 500 (Exa 500, VX200) - start of production 1966. Focal gate... Shutter speeds from 1/2 s to 1/500 s. Bayonet mount lens.
Made in West Germany
- Exakta real
Made in Japan
- Exakta Twin TL and Exakta Twin TL 42 - Production start in 1970. Produced by Petri Camera. Bayonet mount lens.
- Exakta TL 500 - Production start in 1976. Produced by Petri Camera.
- Exacta TL 1000
- Exakta FE 2000
- Exakta EDX 2
- Exakta EDX 3
- Exakta HS-1
- Exakta HS-3
Frame size 4 × 6,5 cm
- Exakta A - Camera Series. It has been produced since 1933. Type 127 film was developed in 1912 by Eastman Kodak for the Vest Pocket Kodak camera. Therefore, Exakta for 127 film is sometimes called VP Exakta. Focal gate... Shutter speeds from 1/25 s to 1/1000 s. Interchangeable lens.
- Exakta B - Produced since 1935. Shutter speeds from 12 sec. To 1/1000 sec.
- Night Exakta - Produced from 1934 to 1937. Sold with high-aperture lensmi Meyer Primoplan 80mm f / 1,9, Zeiss Biotar 80mm f / 2 and Dallmeyer 80mm f / 1,9. It was produced in two versions: with a set of excerpts as in Exakta A and Exakta B.
- Exakta C - created on the basis of Exakta A and Exakta B. A replaceable backdrop made it possible to photograph on film or photographic plates. When photographing on plates focusing carried out on frosted glass. When photographing on film, an additional ring was screwed in between the lens and the camera body to compensate for the flange length lens.
Frame size 6 × 6 cm
Exakta 6 × 6 (horizontal model) - Produced since 1938. Shutter speeds from 12 sec. To 1/1000 sec. Interchangeable lens. Mine viewfinder.
Exakta 6 × 6 (vertical model) - Produced since 1952 in the German Democratic Republic. Interchangeable lens, interchangeable back. Vertical movement of the film. Shutter speeds from 12 sec. To 1/1000 sec.
Exakta 66 - Film type 120 or 220. Produced in West Germany. Presented at Photokina 1984. It has been on sale since 1986.
Exakta 66 II
Exacta 66 III
The name "Ekzakta" had already been used before in Ihagee SLR cameras designed for roller films. The Kine prefix symbolizes the use of 35 mm film, the most widespread in professional cinematography, as photographic material. The rapid development of film technology and the growth of the photographic quality of film made it possible to create compact camerassuitable for reportage shooting in the most inaccessible places. After the advent of the small-format Leica and Contax rangefinder, the popularity of this material has skyrocketed, forcing photographic equipment manufacturers to design small-format equipment. The head of the Ihagee design group Karl Nüchterlein (German Karl Nüchterlein) also did not stay away from the general trend, and developed the small-format "Exaktu", which laid the foundation for the most numerous class of photographic equipment.
The principle of a single-lens reflex camera was already known in the XNUMXth century, but was hardly used in the dominant large-format cameras. A large frame implied the presence of a movable mirror of the same size, which, when raised quickly, created strong vibration, reducing the sharpness of the picture. In addition, the focal shutterm in such cameras, more compact central ones were preferred, which made it difficult to use interchangeable optics. A small frame of "Exakty" made it possible to reduce the shaking from miniature shutter and mirrors to a minimum, realizing the main advantages of a mirror design: the use of interchangeable lenses of any focal length with their accurate focusing and parallax-free framing. The through viewfinder made it possible to use the camera for interfacing with any optical devices and macro photography. At the same time, the technology of those years did not allow to get rid of the main disadvantages of the mirror viewfinder even with a small frame format. The Kine-Ekzakta did not have the pentaprism invented much later, which made it difficult to sight, which was possible only at a right angle through the shaft. In addition, with aperture lens the image on the frosted glass was dimmed, making focusing difficult.
The Kine-Ekzakta camera was equipped with a focal gateohm with excerptmi from 1/1000 to 12 seconds. The mirror, like all SLR cameras of those years, was lowered into the working position only when it was cocked. gatee. The viewfinder with a plano-convex collective lens provided through sighting only at the working aperture value lens... When closed, a folding light-shielding shaft blocked the release button. In addition to the main SLR, a so-called "sports" frame-type viewfinder was built into the shaft. For this, a rectangular hatch was opened in the front wall of the shaft, which served as a front frame, and the framing was carried out from eye level, which was more convenient for reportage photography. In this case, focusing could be carried out on a meter scale or preliminarily on frosted glass through a hinged hatch magnifier. The sports viewfinder showed the approximate frame boundaries for lens 50 mm.
Lenses Zeiss Tessar 50 / 2,8 or Zeiss Biotar 58 / 2,0 were used as standard lenses. The optics are mounted using bayonet, specially designed for this camera, and subsequently with minor improvements used in all small-format "Exects", as well as in "Topcon" cameras. The technical excellence of Kine-Ekzakty is evidenced by the fact that optics with such a mount soon began to be produced by the largest optical concerns, including Carl Zeiss, Schneider, Angenieux and Meyer-Optik. The film was transported with a trigger with a long stroke of 300 °. At the same time, the film moved in the direction opposite to most modern small format cameras: from right to left, when viewed from the photographer's side. A two-cassette charger was used, which made it possible to take out a piece of film of any length for development. For this, a knife is provided inside the body.
Kine Exacta Mods
Throughout the history of the release, the design of "Kine-Ekzakty" practically did not change. There are five known variants of this camera, differing only in minor external details.
The earliest cameras can be easily distinguished by the round swing-out magnifier built into the front wall of the shaft. This modification is considered a great collector's item. The magnifier of the second version has a rectangular shape. The third and fourth variants differ in a different spelling of the name, in which instead of "k" is used "c": "Kine Exacta". It is believed that these series of cameras were destined for export to the United States and other North American countries. In the fourth version, in contrast to the third, a threaded hole for attaching the cord is added above the two synchrocontact sockets.
After the outbreak of the Second World War, the capacities of the Ihagee factories were redesigned for the needs of the Wehrmacht, and the production of Kine-Ekzakta was suspended in 1940. It began to be released again only eight years later. This option is considered the fifth and final option. Its name is also spelled out for export: "Exacta". The Ihagee embossing disappeared from the back cover, and the rest of the camera did not differ much from the pre-war one. In the same year, 1948, the production of Kine-Ekzakty was discontinued due to the release of the new Exakta II model.
- I Kine Exakta Round flip-up magnifier built into the front wall of the shaft
- II Kine Exakta Rectangular flip-up magnifier built into the front wall of the shaft
- III Kine Exacta There is no threaded hole for attaching the cord above the sync pin jacks
- IV Kine Exacta Above the two sync pin sockets added a threaded hole for attaching the cord
- V Kine Exacta No “Ihagee” embossing on the case back
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