GOMZ, LOMO

September 11, 2013

Three times the Order of Lenin Leningrad Optical and Mechanical Association named after V.I. Lenin (JSC "LOMО») Is a Russian company engaged in the production and sale of optical-mechanical and optical-electronic devices. An enterprise of the optical-mechanical industry of the Russian Empire, the USSR and Russia. The largest Soviet optical-mechanical production and design association.

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LOMO history

The earliest Soviet optical factory actually appeared even before the Soviet Union itself. Founded in 1914 in the city of Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) on ​​Chugunnaya Street by the Russian Joint Stock Company for Optical and Mechanical Industries, established on August 23 (September 5), 1913. Over the next 20 years, this factory changed names several times and underwent many management changes. In 1924, Petrograd would be renamed Leningrad, and the plant would undergo a series of name changes: GOZ, TOMP, VTOMP, VOOMP, and eventually the State Optical and Mechanical Plant, or GOMZ for short. Then, and LOMO.

The first director of the plant was A. L. Gershun. At the first stage of its activity, the plant produced devices for checking the aiming lines of guns, sights, stereo tubes, periscopes for artillery. In 1915, about 300 people worked at the plant, in 1916 - about 900.

In September 1921, the enterprise became known as the State Optical Plant (GOZ). In 1924, the "Optical and Mechanical Production Trust" (TOMP) was formed, which included the State Optical Plant (Chugunnaya St., 20) and the State Workshops of Meteorological and Precision Instruments named after T. Evdokimov (19th line of V.O. , ten).

In 1923, the State Optical Plant developed the GOZ mobile film projector using an incandescent lamp. This device has found wide application in the cinematography of the village. In 1924, the first domestic stationary film projector "Rus" was created at the plant, using an arc lamp. In 1930, the serial production of the first Soviet mass amateur camera "Photokor No. 1" was launched.

Больше фотоаппаратов в каталоге

On December 29, 1929, by the decision of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR, TOMP was reorganized and it included the Izyumsky and Leningrad optical glass factories, as well as the Pavshinsky precision mechanics plant. This new association was named "All-Union Trust of Optical and Mechanical Enterprises" (VTOMP). In 1930, VTOMP again changed its name to the All-Union Association of the Optical and Mechanical Industry (VOOMP). In the same 1930, the enterprise was renamed into the "State Optical and Mechanical Plant named after OGPU" (GOMZ). In the post-war period, in a number of documents the plant was also referred to as “Plant No. 349 im. OGPU "and" PO Box 412 ".

GOMZ benefited from the occupation of East Germany after the war, when various German optics factories were dismantled and sent to different places in the Soviet Union. As a result, in 1946, GOMZ was able to quickly begin production of a new camera called "Komsomolets", which was very similar to the Voigtländer Brillant. The Komsomolets was the first completely new camera to be produced in the Soviet Union after the war. It went through various changes throughout its life, including a name change in 1949 to Lover.

The amateur was extremely popular both in the Soviet Union and in the exporting countries as it was light, small, cheap, easy to use, and took better than average photographs. The original model remained in production until around 1988, and was re-released in 2008 by a new company called the Lubitel Universal 166+, which is still in production today.

Thanks to the success of the "Amateur", the GOMZ plant was able to expand, releasing several new and more competitive models. This first post-war 35mm camera was the Smena, which began production in 1953. A simple and compact 35mm Bakelite camera, Smena started a whole family of compact 35mm compact cameras that existed until the collapse of the USSR in the 1990s.

Since 1962 it was transformed into the Leningrad Optical and Mechanical Association (LOMO). By the time LOMO was created, it also included the following factories:

  • "KINAP" (cinema equipment)
  • "Progress" (military products - sights, etc.)
  • "Experimental Optical and Mechanical Plant" ("OOMZ")
  • Some other businesses

C 1962 по 1965 годы предприятие также называлось «ЛООМП» («Ленинградское объединение оптико-механических предприятий»). В 1993 году ЛОМО было приватизировано и получило название ОАО «ЛОМО», владельцами которого являются более 16 тысяч акционеров. На сегодняшний день в ОАО «ЛОМО» работает около 3,5 тысяч сотрудников.

In October 2007, by order of the American company Luma Tech, the enterprise launched the production of ILLUMINA cine lenses, developed in modern frames based on Soviet optics of the OKS series. Since the end of 2011, an improved series of cinema optics "ILLUMINA S35" has been produced.

Director

  • 1962-1986 - Panfilov, Mikhail Panfilovich
  • 1986-1992 - Sergeev, Dmitry Vasilievich
  • 1992-1997 - Klebanov, Ilya Iosifovich
  • 1997-2005 - Kobitsky, Arkady Semyonovich
  • 2005 - present v. - Aronov, Alexander Mikhailovich

Notable employees

  • Ioannisiani, Bagrat Konstantinovich (1911-1985) - Hero of Socialist Labor (1977), designer of astronomical instruments.

Production

Civilian products

  • BTA Telescope is the world's largest optical telescope from 1976 to 1993 (the mirror for BTA was manufactured at LZOS)
  • "ZTSh" is the largest optical telescope in Eurasia and the third in the world at the time of construction (1960) optical telescope. At the moment, along with "ZTA" and "ROT-54 / 2.6", the second largest optical telescope in the territory of the CIS countries
  • "ZTA" - telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia (1976). At the moment, along with "ZTSh" and "ROT-54 / 2.6", it is the second largest optical telescope in the territory of the CIS countries.
  • RTT-150 (AZT-22, Russian-Turkish 1,5-m optical telescope)
  • Telescopes series "AVR", "AZT"
  • Meridian circles, transit instruments, zenith telescopes, photographic zenith tubes, all together produced as part of the APM series
  • Telescopes for amateur astronomers "Astele" with a diameter of 70 to 254 mm
  • Фотоаппараты «ЛОМО» («ГОМЗ»). Известные: Ленинград, Смена, ЛОМО и другие (в каталоге 1200 cameras of the USSR)

Microscopes:

  • universal measuring instruments (UIM-21, UIM-23, UIM-29 ...)
  • metallographic (METAM)
  • medical / biological (BIOLAM, MIKMED-5, MIKMED-6)

And also:

  • Automated spectrometers "SF-56" and "IKS-40"
  • VCR
  • Cinema projectors series "23KPK"
  • Cine lenses for professional cinematography. Over the period from 1963 to 1992, more than 100 thousand lenses of the OKS series were manufactured.
  • Optical system of the reconnaissance satellite of the species reconnaissance "Persona"
  • Amateur filming devices "Aurora", "Lantan", "Neva", "Lada", "Sport", "LOMO" (see. Amateur filming devices of the USSR).
  • Amateur filming devices of the LOMO-Aurora family
  • Optimometers (IKG-3, IKV-3)
  • Photovoltaic systems MFS-7, MFS-8, DFS-51

Military and dual-use products

Various optical-mechanical and optical-electronic devices for military purposes are an important area of ​​production and R&D of the enterprise.
In the photo: tank sight "Irtysh".

The development of military and dual-use products in the structure of the enterprise was carried out by the Design Bureau of Special Optical Systems. Below is a short list:

  • Marine stereo range finders DM-6, DM-3
  • Rangefinders DM-1.5, DM-3, DM-4, ​​DM-8
  • Pedestals DM-3, DM-4, ​​PAU-22, RVP-1, VBK-1
  • VMTs-2 central aiming sight
  • Torpedo inclinometer
  • Stabilized sighting post SVP
  • Periscopes for submarines: commander periscopes (attack periscopes) PA-7.5, PA-8.5, PA-9, anti-aircraft periscopes, special periscopes PS-7, "S", "D", PAU-22, PER-27, PER- 166U
  • Laser rangefinder-sight DVU-2
  • Station of laser illumination of the radio-optical complex "Krona"
  • Fire control systems
  • Tank sights "Ob", "Irtysh"
  • Aviation sights
  • Sights, optical-electronic and optical-mechanical devices for the Tunguska air defense missile system, Shilka air defense system, Strela-10 air defense missile system
  • Electron-optical fuses: "Aist-2", "Sokol-M", "Bekas-2"
  • Night vision devices ("Recon", "Recon-2", "Recon-3", "Recon-4", "ONV-1", "Elf", "Elf-1")
  • Optical sights (PE, "Mowgli", "PO-1.5-4.5 × 20", "PO-3.5", "PO-3.5-2", "PO-3-9 × 31", "PO-4 × 31" , "PO-4-12 × 43", "PO-6 × 36")
  • Homing heads for missiles of various classes, including Strela-2 and Igla MANPADS, Krasnopol and Kitolov guided missiles;
  • Fire control systems for ballistic missiles "Bulava", RT-2PM "Topol"
  • The guidance system of the complex of weapons of anti-missile and anti-space defense "Terra-3"
  • Ultra-light mirror-lens objective for the OT-2 spacecraft
  • Optical system "Karat" for satellites of view reconnaissance "Bars-M", telescopes for satellites of optical-electronic reconnaissance "Araks"

Major shareholders

Shares of shareholders in% to the authorized capital:

  • For legal entities - 59,07%, including
    • 18,74% - CJSC Baltic Financial Agency (nominal owner, represents the interests of Ekaterina Praskurina-Klebanova, daughter of I. I. Klebanov)
    • 17,7% - Sputnik LLC
    • 9,25% - AK "Aleria Ltd" (Cyprus)
    • 7,81% - CJSC "Bosi-Trend" (General Director Aronov A.M.)
  • For individuals - 15,93%, including
    • 19,5% - Vasily Valentinovich Ilyichev
    • 10,743% - A.M. Aronov
    • 7,22% - for employees of JSC "LOMO"

Product samples

  • BTA telescope
  • Telescope RTT-150
  • Camera "Smena-8M"
  • Camera "LOMO Compact-Automatic"
  • Camera "Leningrad"
  • Camera "Amateur"

Interesting Facts

  • The LOMO Compact-Avtomat camera and the pictures taken with it contributed to the emergence of a new direction in photography - lomography.
  • The bike known to the indigenous GOMZ members (GOMZ named after OGPU is the head enterprise of LOMO since August 1962) - "OGospodiPomogiUdrat" and vice versa - "You will get away, I'll catch your head." That is why GOMZ LOMO developed.


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